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tion. The present bishop, Mar some of the leaves being nearly deDionysius, is a native of Malayala, cayed. The Syrian Church asbut of Syrian extraction. The signs to this manuscript very high Church of Malayala hrve till late- antiquity. The order of the books ly received their bishops from An- of the Old and New Testament in tioch ; but that patriarchate being it differs from that of the European now neirly extinct, they are in- copies, a chronological arrangeclined to look to Britain.

ment being more attended to in the Syrian Christians are also con- former. The first emendation of nected with the Churches of Mes- the Hebrew text (Gen. iv. 8.) proopotamia and Syria (two hundred posed by Dr. Kennicott, is found is and fifteen in number), which are this manuscript. The disputed at present in a declining state, and passage in the 1 John v. 7. is dat struggling with great diticulties. in it.

The Syrian Christians in Mely- In some other copies that verse ala still use the Syrian language in is interpolated in black ink, which their churclies, although the Mi- was done by the Romish Church in Irraline is the vernacular tougue. 1599. Two different characters of Ffforts have been made to translate writing appear to have been in use the Syriac and Scriptures into Ma- amongst the Syrian Christians, the layaline, but it has not hitherto common Syriac and the Estrangeic, been effected, for want of suitable the oldest manuscripts are in the means. On its being proposed to latter. send a Malavaline translation to There are other ancient docueach of the fifty-five churches, on ments highly interesting, amongst condition that they would transcribe which are certain tablets of brass it, and circulate the copies among or mixed metal, which were supthe people, the elders replied, that posed to have been lost, but have so greit was the desire of the peo- since been recovered, and whic ple to have the Scriptures in the are stated to contain grants of cervulgar tongue, that it might be ex- tain privileges to the Christians of pected that every man who could Malayala. The plates are six in write would make a copy on ollas number, closely engraved, four of (palm) leaves, for his own family. them on both sides the plate. The

On investigating the Syro-Chal- oldest tablet is engraved in triandaic manuscripts, in Malayala, gular headed letters resembling some of great antiquity were dis- the Persepolitan or Babylonish. Oa covered.

The Syriac version of the same plate there is writing the Scriptures was bronght to In- which has no affinity to any existdia, according to the belief of the ing character in Hindostan. The Syrians, before the year 636 (A.D. grant on this tablet appears to be 325) and they alledge their copies witnessed by four Jews of rank, to have been exact transcripts, whose names are distincly written without any known error', down to in an old Hebrew character rethe present day. Some of these sembling the alphabet called the are certainly of ancient date ; one Palmyrene, and to each name is found in a remote church amongst prefixed the title of • Majen,' that the mountains contains the Old and is, Chief. The Jews of Cochia New Testaments engrossed on also produce tablets, which they strong vellum, in large folio, har. contend are of equal, if not greater ing three columns in each page, antiquity. It is intended to printa and is written with beautiful accu- copper-plate fac simile of the whole racy. The character is Estrange- of these plates, making fourteen lo Syriac, and the words of every pages, and to transmit copies to the book are numbered. The volume learned societies in Hindostan and is illuminated, though not after the in Europe. European nianner. It has suffered Some ancient manuscripts have some injury from time or neglect, also been found among the Blac)


Jews in the interior of Malayala. excellence is no where so little valAn old copy of the Law was found ued as in Vienna. A delight in written on a roll of leather about cavalcades and dogs, and an unrefifty teet in length, the skins being served devotion to the spirit of sown together.

commerce, in the eyes of most peoIt is intended to deposit such of ple, constituie a valuable man. How the Syriac and Jewish manuscripts is it possible, under these circumas are found to be valuable, in the stances, that any thing distinguishpublick libraries of the British u- ed in the republick of literature, niversities.

can appear in the imperial resi

dence? It has often been observed LITERARY ADVICES FROM AUS- that people of the greatest literary

reputation, and the most extraorThe sale of books, although re- dinary diligence while they reduced very low in Germany, has mained abroad, immediately as no where suffered so much as in the they choose Viema for their resiAustrian States. In better times dence,have relinquished the path of the commerce in books in Austria literature. Notwithstanding these Was never very flourishing, one rea- facts, the superiour booksellers son was, that good articles were here, have in general transacted seldom offered to the booksellers, business to advantage. People buy and another that they deterred books, at least, if they do not read many authors of reputation by their them. Several booksellers indeed, niggardly proposals. The name of have kept large stocks on hand. Vienna on the title page was e- Degen published superb works. nough to impede the success of a The late Director of Camesina's work. Can any thing good come concern, Beck, edited very imporfrom Vienna ? was the question of tant works in a truly elegant style: many foreigners ; and not alto- Geistinger did the same, and gether without reason. Among a Schaumburg, who doubtless keeps continual round of eating and the best assortment, and serves his drinking, restlessness and noise, the customers with the greatest promprestraints of the censurate, and the titude, has edited many valuable manifest want of inclination for the articles. But few publications meet nobler employments of the mind, the wished for sale ; and, it was evinced by the higher classes, how therefore natural that one book selcould any thing sublime or mental ler after another, should either flourish? Very few of those to cease from keeping stock, or rewhose care is committed the repu- duce it very low, and now, when tation of the country appear to feel there is little demand, the dealers the importance of this object. The are too fearful to undertake any few noble minds which take a high- thing considerable. Geistinger aper stand, are pretty much isolated, pears to risque the most, and to and are not understood. No atten- succeed with some articles from tion is directed to improve the na- Hosor, Glatz, and Trattinik ; but tive dialect, and from ignorance of in his publications he reckons much a better language, the Austrian on a fair exteriour. The mob of patois is spoken in the best circles, pirates, and dealers in piracies, find wherein one might expect to find the most advantage. superiour information. It must in

This great monarchy does not deed be acknowledged, that there produce one distinguished publick is no province in Germany where paper. Our political newspapers the youth are more tormented with are sick : some in a consumption, the etymological part of the Ger- others in a dropsy. For some time man language ; yet at the same there was talk of the speedy aptime none where such bad German pearance of a journal, under the is spoken, and for the greater part title of Austrian Leaves (Oesterwritten, as in Austria Literary reichische Blätten) which was to

embrace much, but at present noth- tive to Austria, is here read with ing is said about it.

There are much approbation. Greatly is it some appearances as if the Cen- wished, that many truths contained suraechere would unobservedly be- therein, might engage the altercome milder ; at least many free tion of our monarch. The gazette spoken words in the foreigo news- of Neuwied retains its fornier estipapers, receive the “toleratur,' if mation, and not withstanding much not the admittitur.' The more distorted and superficial reasoning, poble wish that those who sit at the enjoys a great reputation amoos helin may read and ponder these the higher ranks. words ; and, what might be of the The booksellers in the provinces best consequence, would lay them for the most part, co no business si before the sovereign, who by the consequence ; vnt occupy thengreat candour of his mind, and the selves principally with pirated ed. rare uprightness and goodness of itions. In Hungary, especially, the his heart, nig'it easily receive oth- trade in books is rentered difficult er and more correct views of miny in many ways. In Presborg, important sujects, whereby Cur- Schwaiger does the most business; tainly various things assume a more he also travels through the country friendly form, and the general wel- with books. in Pest, Hartlezea fare of the monarchy might be has attempted to becoine an editre, greatly promoted. For a truly no- which is rather an annual thing ble inind to shew itself in the Em- there : but the attempt is not likepire of Austria, will be very diffi- ly to boast of great success. These cuit when the superiour characters Hungarian towais lare the most in the state do not cherish a litera- commerce in bocks; in most other ry and scientifick education, nor towns of that country, the boosexcite emulation by honours and binders are at the same time book publick distinctions. A more free sellers, or rather bookbrokers. and liberal turn of mind is greatly The Gazette of and for Hungary, wanted, a disposition fettered by cilited by Schedins, appears, in the no censurate unnecessarily rigid, present state of the commerce in and frustrated by no little peda- books, not likely to be soon resumgogick school plan, a spirit secure ed. Bredelyky's contritntions to from the suspicion of mean liypo- the topography of Hungary, which chondriack nxinds, who view but contain many good things, is niet one side of a question. Those who relinquished, but will be concluded know our beloved, emperour, and with the fourth volume. The in. his enlightened ministry, assure us, dustrious Kovachich contimes rery loudly, that a national turn of active in the history and literature mind, of this nobler description of his country ; he is now occupied inight easily be hoperi for, if it at- with the idea of a new edition of tained publicity enough to engage the Corpus juris Hungarici, much the attention of a prince whojudges augmented by many happily disso candidly, and intends so up- covered old imperial statutes. The rightly as Francis Il. Of the lite- historian, Von Eugel, appears i rary journals, that of Halle is the his historical character to keep most read; after this, that of Jena; holiday. Schwartner is still ; and of other periodical works, the Free if the times do not soon improve, Thinker ( Das Preumuthige) is by-and-by every thing will be still; prost in request, and after that the but it will be the stillness of the Gazette for the elegant world ( Zei- tomb.

ung für du eirgant wilt.) The We shall add a succinct view Klinerva of the lively and indus- of the trious Archenholtz, which since the AUSTRIAN JOURNALS. breaking out of the last war, con- It is well known, that the patritains many pertinent remarks and otick journal of M. André, counselsentiments of serious import, rela lour of education, at Brunn, ceased

with the menth of June, 1805, M. articles. A sheet is published twice André having been invited into a week, since July 2. Price for the Bavaria ; however he is not yet balf year, 4 forins. Mr. Kultsar, gone thither, on account of the war, formerly Professor of Elocution, and and other circumstances. A com- tutor to the young Count Festerits, petent successor to continue this writes a pure Hungarian style.. useful and much read journal has This journal finds its way into the not been found.

neighbouring countries, as Servia, A journal which M. Von Hanke, Bosnia, Moldavia, and Walachia. in Olmutz, intended to have pub- We flatter ourselves that it will lished, under the title of Slanenka, furnish us with various articles and of which one number appeared which may increase our acquaintin 4to in 1804, from the university ance with the state and productions press, at Buda, is interrupted by of Hungary. his death. This number contained a critical account of a copy of an

MISCELLANEOUS. old Sclavonian Bible, in the posses- The bigh price of books is a subşion of the editor's family, which is ject of general observation, yet iew by no means a master-piece of crit- persons take the trouble to ascericism ; and evinces no fundamental tain the causes, or to make comknowledge of the Sclavonian lan- parisons between their prices and guage. A journal is published at those of other articles, or to examPrague, entitled Slawin, “a mes- ine into their prices in England sage from Bohemia to all Sclavon- and in other countries. The inian nations,' by Joseph Dobrowski, crease of price arises principally member of the Royal Bohemian from the prevailing taste of the Society of Sciences at Prague, and publick, which gives encourageof the learned Society at Warsaw. ment only to fine printing, super8vo., 2 numbers cost 1 florin. fine paper, and costly embellish

Another journal is likewise pub- ments (or rather which discourages lished at Prague, quarterly, under plain and simply useful printing), the title Hlasatel Cesky, “The Bo- and partly from the advanced hemian Prophet,' by Mr. John Ne- prices of printing, engraving, and gedly, Doctor of Laws, and Profes- all the materials of which a book sor of the Bohemian Language and is composed. Every person must Literature in the University there. be aware, that the price of a book The object of this publication is to must be governed in a certain decombine entertainment with infor- gree by the number of copies printmation, but especially the promot- ed, because the expence of setting ing and perfecting of the Bohemian up the types must be divided alanguage and literature. Two mong the number of copies. The numbers have appeared, whose same principle holds in regard to contents correspond with this ob- the labour of authorship, the charject. They include translations of ges for engraving, and all the other select pieces from Lucian, Cicero, preliminary expences which are Pope, and the Messiah of Klop- necessary to the production of the stock. The editor is assisted by first copy. It is another principle Witsch Negedly, J. Mysliwecki, equally obvious, that the number Joseph Jungman, and others. of copies sold will, in a certain de

Mr. Stephen Kultsar has entitled gree, be in the inverse ratio of the his paper, published at Pest, in the price, that is, if the book be cheap, Hungarian language, Hazai tudo- more copies will be sold, and if sitasok, • Advices of our native dear, there will be a smaller numcountry. He has already more ber of persons who can afford to than 200 subscribers ; and the buy it. "It follows therefore, that Comitates wish to remove the pro- whatever tends to increase the first hibition, by which he can insert cost of a book to its publisher, nothing but domestick Hungarian tends in a still higher degree to raise the price, because the neces- price at which tley can be prosary increase of price will occasion duced in America. a diminution of purchasers ; consequently all the preliminary ex- The valuable library of the late pences must be borne by a smaller professor Hensler, of Kiel, in Holnumber of persons, or be laid on a stein, has been purchased, and smaller number of copies. The lately imported to Edinburgh, by fault is obviously therefore in the Messrs. Constable and Com, uny. luxurious taste of the times, which It consists of upwards of one in the has forced the printers of books to sand five hundred volumes, of it enter into a competition to render most choice description ; compris all publications superb, and conse- ing the rarest and most valuable quently costly, and every shilling editions of all the best Greek and in the intrinsick value of a copy of a Roman classicks, and was considbook, adds three to its price, on ered to be one of the most selea account of the necessary reduction private classical collections in Gerof the edition, and on account of many. the increase in the first cost, which adds proportionally to the hazard Mr. Walter Scott has received of success. Books, it will be appa- a thousand guineas for his new porent, are unlike inost other arti- em, entitled, “ Marmien, or a Tale cles ; a weaver may make one, or of Flodden Field.' It is in the one hundred yards of cloth at the press, and will speedily be pubsimple cost per yard of the labour, lished. and the material, whether for one yard, or for one hundred ; but in The late Rev. Dr. Symonds, pro the production of books, it costs fessor of modern history, in the t nearly as much to produce one niversity of Cambridge, had de copy as one thousand, all the ex- voted a considerable share of at pences being the same for one copy tention to the English languages as for one thousand, except the in- with a view of rectifying the mistrinsick value of the paper and a takes and inelegancies observable small expence for press work. It in the composition of our best wri. follows then as a practical and im- ters. His numerous avocations preportant inference, that the lovers vented him from completing the of literature ought to consider fine work, but he had at the time of his printing, superfine paper, macca- death made considerable progress roni embellishments, and every in the preparation of it. The part thing that adds uselessly to the which he had finished, and which cost of books, as destructive of lit contains his remarks on British erature itself, and that the judicious writers, is intended to be shortly part of the publick ought to give published, and from the ability of preference to that style of printing, the author, the publick may anticiwhich the more effectually answers pate its value. the purposes of communicating knowledge, or they will in time be A new edition of Langhorne's the means of raising printed books Plutarch, with a great number of to the price of manuscripts. E- corrections of the text, and considnough has been said to inform the erable additions to the notes, by publick of its duties, and this para the Rev. Francis Wrangham, is graph has already exceeded its nearly ready for publication. bounds, or the writer had intended to prove that books have not risen Professor Porson is about to rein price more than other articles, print, in one volume, the four plays and that they are much cheaper, of Euripides, before published sepcæteris paribus, than in any other arately. They have been for some country in Europe, and at half the time past remarkably scarce.

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