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1850, for medical aid, he was 'seized with the DYEING. Among the earliest records of the illness that terminated his life. He published at human race we find frequent intimations of an varions times several sermons and addresses, appreciation of the brilliant hues such as are the “Life of Brainerd” (1822), a volume on the displayed by nature in the plumage of birds, "Atonement” (1826), the “Life of Edwards” in flowers, crystals, and shells, and in the morn. (1830), and the Hebrew Wife" (1836). A vol. ing and evening sky; and the instinct implanted ume of his “Select Discourses ” was published in man of imitating the works of his Creator is in 1851, together with an interesting memoir seen in the desire to appropriate these rich by his brother, the Rev. Dr. W. T. Dwight. colors to the adornment of his own apparel.
DWINA, or Dvina, NORTHERN, a river of The gift of the coat of many colors was early Russia in Europe, formed in the government regarded as the highest mark of affection. To of Vologda by the junction of the Sookhona the fine linen (which was probably the same and Vitchegdå, flows N. N. W. into the gov- as our cotton) were transferred the brilliant ernment of Archangel, where it receives sev- blue, scarlet, and purple hues extracted from eral tributaries, and after a course of more than vegetable or animal substances, the last named 400 miles falls through several mouths, form- color reserved exclusively for the vestments ing a number of islands, into the White sea, of kings and high priests. The skins of the about 40 miles below the city of Archangel. ram and the badger made use of for the taberIt is navigable for its whole length, and is the nacle were dyed red, and in the time of Moses largest stream in northern Europe, traversing the art of coloring woollen purple was already as it does a marshy country, and increased by known. The Tyrians early attained a high numerous affluents. It forms a part of a system perfection in the art, and their king sent to of canals completed in 1807, by which a water Solomon a man skilful to work " in purple and communication is established between the White, blue, and in fine linen and in crimson." Along Baltic, Black, and Caspian seas. (For SOUTHERN the coast of Phænicia they found the two kinds Dwina, see Düna.)
of shellfish called by Pliny the buccinum and DYAKS. See BORNEO.
purpura, and from each animal they extracted DYCE, ALEXANDER, a Scottish author, born a single drop of the precious juice which caused in Edinburgh, June 30, 1797. He completed their name to be ever associated with the rich his education at Exeter college, Oxford, subse- purple dye. In such estimation was this held quently took orders, and in 1827 settled in Lon- in the time of the Roman emperors, that a pound don, where he has since lived. He has edited, weight of the cloth which had been twice dipwith notes and biographies, editions of thé ped in it was sold, as Pliny states, for a sum works of Peele, Greene, Webster, Middleton, worth about $150. But its use being restrictBeaumont and Fletcher, Marlow, and Shirley. ed to the emperors, the art of preparing it was In 1856 he edited “Recollections of the Table at last lost. It was revived in the 17th and Talk of Samuel Rogers ;' and in 1858 he com- 18th centuries in England and France, but betpleted an edition of Shakespeare in 6 vols., the ter colors and cheaper processes were then in text of which has been highly commended. He use. The discoverers and early conquerors of has also contributed biographies for Pickering's the countries of North and South America were “ Aldine Poets.” Among his miscellaneous pub- astonished by the skill exbibited by the ancient lications are: “Select Translations from Quintus Peruvians and Mexicans in the application of Smyrnæus ;" editions of Collins's and Skelton's the numerous beautiful dyes they extracted poems ; Speciinens of British Poetesses;" from the woods of their forests. According to Kemp's “Nino Days' Wonder," and some old Pliny, the methods of dyeing black, blue, yellow, plays. To Shakespearean literature he has con- and green were brought into Greece on the retributed "Remarks on Collier's and Knight's turn of the expedition of Alexander the Great Editions of Shakespeare,” and “ A few Notes on from India, where it appears that the art of Sbakespeare”—a review of the recent emenda- coloring cotton cloths with rich and permanent tions proposed by Mr. Collier.-WILLIAM, a Brit- dyes had long been known and practised. The ish artist, born in Scotland at the beginning of Venetians and Genoese in the height of their this century. He studied painting at the acad- prosperity, in the time of the crusades, transemy of Edinburgh, but attracted little notice until ferred the art to Italy; and Florence in the the production of his fresco studies in the exhibi- early part of the 14th century, it is said, contion at Westminster hall in 1844. The admirable tained not less than 200 dyeing establishments. manner in which these were executed procured The important dye stuff archil was discovered him commissions to make designs for the new about the year 1300 by a merchant of Florence. houses of parliament. His “Baptism of Ethel. In 1429 a work upon dyeing was published in bert," on one of the mural compartments of the Venice, of which subsequent editions were issued new house of lords, is regarded as one of his best as late as the year 1548, containing full details of works. He was made a royal academician in the processes employed. From this work it 1848. Among his pictures exhibited in London would appear that the use of indigo was un. in 1851 was “Lear in the Storm," and in Paris known in Europe up to 1548, though in India in 1855, “ Meeting of Jacob and Rachel," and it was probably an important article in dyeing “King Joash shooting the Arrow of Deliv- at the remotest periods. It was afterward in. erance,
troduced from America together with cochineal,
logwood, annotto, quercitron, Brazil wood, &c. the intricate danges which take place among But its use in England and Saxony, as of log- the elements of organic bodies, the art is readily wood also, met with the most determined oppo- understood to be exceedingly complicated in its sition. The cultivators of the woad then in nature, and to some extent so empirical in its use for dyeing blue caused decrees to be issued processes, that exposition must involve a against indigo as a most dangerous product. vast amount of details. In an article like the By the German diet in 1577 it was declared to present only a general idea of the principles of be “a pernicious, deceitful, eating, and corrosive the art and of the materials employed can be dye;" and the name was given it of food for the given.—The colors obtained from vegetable devil. An act of parliament in the reign of matters are most numerous; they are extracted Elizabeth forbade its use, and authorized the generally by watery infusion, though some redestruction of it and of logwood wherever quire for their solution ether, alcohol, or the found, and this continued in force for nearly a fixed oils. The most common colors are yellow, century. About the year 1630 it was discovered brown, and red; the only blue vegetable dyes that the crimson color obtained from cochineal are litmus and indigo; nut galls, sumach, and might be converted into a brilliant scarlet by the the cashew nut afford a black dye; and by the application of a salt of tin. The introduction mixing of these, or their treatment with other of this metal as an occasional substitute for substances, numerous shades or even different alum as a mordant is attributed to a dyer named colors are obtained. The animal kingdom afCornelius Drebbel. The use of pure mordants fords the beautiful scarlet and crimson dyes, marks the great improvement of the art in which are extracted from the bodies of the cochimodern times, as also the introduction of a peal and kermes insects. Hoofs and horns and great variety of new dyes obtained from min- other refuse animal matters yield the cyanogen eral substances. The Flemings during the 17th which enters into the composition of Prussian century carried the skill to which they had at- blue. From the mineral kingdom is derived a tained in this art into Germany, France, and great variety of brilliant colors, produced from England. The French about the same time the salts of the different metals. The same directed particular attention to it, and men of metal in its various combinations gives many eminence in chemical science, as Du Fay, Hellot, colors, as is seen in the crystals of its natural Macquer, and Berthollet, were appointed by salts. Thus iron in the form of a sulphate the government to investigate and perfect the furnishes the ancient nankeen or iron buff, as a processes. The method practised in the East nitrate it affords various shades of blue, and of giving to cotton the beautiful and permanent in other combinations it is made to yield a black, Turkey red dye was made known in their pub- slate color, &c. The chrome and lead salts are lications, and the art was about the same time particularly interesting for the variety and brilintroduced into France by some Greek dyers. liancy of their colors. The former are remarkThe business was afterward permanently estab- able for their permanency also, and the extent lished at Glasgow by a Frenchman named Pa- of their possible applications is by no means pillon. The branch of dyeing called calico print- yet fully appreciated. The mordants also, which ing, by which different colors are produced on are used to prepare the fibre for the reception the same piece of cloth by dipping it into a dye and fixing of the dye, come almost wholly from of one color, was known at a very early period, the mineral kingdom. They are soluble comand the process is lucidly described in a few binations of alumina, of protoxide of lead, of words by Pliny, as it was practised in Egypt in oxide of iron, or of oxide of tin or of copper, the first century. (See Calico.)—The object with some acid, commonly acetic acid. Mateto be attained by dyeing is the fixing of certain rials to be dyed seldom have such an affinity for colors permanently and so as to present a uni- the coloring matters that they will receive these form shade in the fibres of textile materials without previous preparation. Some few colors, and other substances. The subjects operated however, which are technically called substanupon are various in their characters, some be- tive, are applied directly to the stuffs, and being of animal origin, as silks and woollens, come fixed without the intervention of any other and others being composed of vegetable mat- matter. But mordants are commonly required. ters alone, as cottons, linens, &c. These two They have the property of fixing themselves to classes differ in the facility with which they the fibre, and of uniting chemically with the dye imbibe the coloring matters, the animal tissue afterward applied, thus binding them fast togetaking much more brilliant shades than the ther. The name is given them from the old vegetable. The colors may be applied to each opinion that their action was mechanical, and of these in the raw fibre, in the spun yarn, that they bit into (Lat. mordeo) and opened or in the woven fabric. Hence it is apparent the pores of the fibre for the reception of the that there must be much diversity in the pro- coloring matters. Some of them serve, at the cesses. But when it is further considered that same time that they fix the color, to modify its the coloring matters are themselves of the shade, and give to it its highest tone. For these most diverse composition, drawn from the vege- the name alterants has been proposed by Bertable, animal, and mineral kingdoms, and that thollet, to distinguish them from the simple mordifferent substances are brought together to dants.' Oxide of iron often has this effect of produce by their reactions effects dependent on changing the ordinary colors of a dye. Thus a
decoction of madder applied to unmordanted ing cloth, others with brushes for laying the cotton gives a fugitive and dirty red color. If fibre, squeezing rollers, and drying machines. the cotton be first passed through a weak solu- Boilers are seen in operation heated by steam tion of acetate of alumina, and then dried at a conveyed through them in pipes; water flows high temperature, afterward washed, next treat- in every direction, the waste running out in ed with a hot decoction of madder, and again streams of all colors, and the fresh conveyed washed, it will be found to have received a fine about by numerous pipes. The water must be red, which is fixed, so as to resist the action of of the purest quality, uncontaminated by any air, light, and water. But if, instead of alumi- foreign substances, whose presence would inna, oxide of iron is employed as the mordant, juriously affect the delicate chemical processes. a purple color will be obtained. So in dyeing The dyestuffs are ground and mixed in another with cochineal, the aluminous mordant produces room, where they are also stored. The infusions a crimson color; but if oxide of iron is used in- are made in tubs or vats, some in cold water, stead, the result is black. By mixing mordants and some by boiling. The dyestuffs are introdifferent shades and colors are produced, and duced in the form of a coarse powder, or they varying the strength of the solutions, and other may be enclosed in bags through which the color similar expedients, afford opportunities for the is imparted to the liquid. The cotton cloth is exercise of much ingenuity in obtaining a va- first prepared by thorough cleansing in order riety of effects. A thorough familiarity with to remove all extraneous matters that may be the chemical action of the salts employed upon attached to the fibre; acid waters are sometimes each other is essential to skilfully conduct these used for this purpose, dissolving out the calcomplicated processes, and obtain most directly careous earth and oxide of iron which are freand with the greatest economy the effects de- quently present. The mordant is then applied sired. It is often the case that the color is pro- by soaking the cloth in solutions of alum, each duced in the cloth in the form of a precipitate pound of cotton requiring 4 oz. of alum; or if by the interchange of the elements of 2 differ- à black color is to be produced, the mordant is ent chemical compounds taking place in the a preparation of nut galls boiled for 2 hours in fibre of the stuff, on this being dipped first into water. The preparatory operations are expedited the solution of one, and then into that of the by passing the cloth in lengths of 100 yards or other. The new color obtained by this chemical more over and under different rollers, one of reaction is at the same time fixed in the fibre, which is set under the liquid in the vat. The as though one of the substances acted as a mor- Auid is thus kept uniformly mixed, and the dant; this may be the case when neither solu- cloth is equally saturated with it. As it comes tion would afford any color whatever to the out of the vat it is made to pass between 2 rollmaterial to be dyed. Thus an aqueous solution ers, which press out the superfluous moisture, of nitrate or acetate of lead or of bichromate of and it is then ready for another dipping. After potash imparts no color to cloth; if applied to the dyeing has been completed, the cloth must be it, either may be washed out; but one being ap- submitted to the finishing processes. The loose plied to the same stuff after it has received the portions of the coloring matters are removed other, an insoluble precipitate of chrome yellow by washing, and the colors are brightened and (chromate of lead) is obtained, which attaches rendered more permanent by passing the cloth itself to the stuff as a fast dye.' The oxygen of through solutions of cow dung in water, or of the air is also made to act upon colors subject the artificial preparations of phosphates used as to its influence, bringing them out as the mate- a substitute and called by this name, or a solarial exposed to it is converted into an oxide. tion of bran is used to effect a similar purpose. Solutions of salts which evolve oxygen are used These are processes adopted in calico printing to produce the same effect. Acids, too, are particularly, as is that of fixing the colors by added to alkaline solutions to neutralize them steaming the cloth. Chloride of lime in soluand cause the dye they hold in solution to be tion is also employed to remove the excess of liberated as they precipitate among the fibres coloring matters. By next passing the cloth of the cloth. In the process called mandarining through squeezing rollers the water is pressed an acid is made to act directly upon the fibre of out, and in the drying machine it is in a few the cloth, which in this case must be of animal minutes rendered nearly dry, the centrifugal substance, as silk or woollen. An orange dye force produced by the rapid revolution of a is thus produced by the action of dilute nitric cylinder expelling the moisture, which escapes acid.—An interesting account is given by Tom- through apertures made for the purpose. The linson, in the "Useful Arts and Manufactures starching and subsequent drying by steam follow, of Great Britain," of the operations conducted in and the cloth is ready for the final process of calone of the great English cotton dye houses, near endering.--In 1850 a patent was granted in EngBolton. In an immense apartment, the base- land to Mr. Jean Adolphe Carton for improvement story of a large cotton mill, is collected ments in dyeing, which consist in the preparation the great variety of apparatus employed: cis- of 4 mordants to be used instead of the cream of terns of stone for bleaching and washing; dash- tartar, and cream of tartar and alum, now comwheels, &c., also for washing; "dye becks” and monly employed, whereby colors will be produce " soap becks,” or vessels containing the dye- ed at a cheaper rate and of superior brilliancy stuffs and the soap and water; mangles for roll- and variety. The first mordant is prepared by dissolving 18 parts by weight of common salt See Bancroft's-“Experimental Researches conand 9 parts of tartaric acid in 67 parts of boiling cerning the Philosophy of Permanent Colors" water, and then adding 18 parts of the acetic (1796). A very complete treatise upon dyeing acid of commerce. One pound of this mordant is contained in the new work of “Chemistry is equivalent for dyeing purposes to about one applied to the Arts and Manufactures,” by Dr. pound of cream of tartar, and it is used in Muspratt. The principal French works on dyethe same manner. It is suitable for crimson ing are: A. Vinçard, L'art du teinturier (1820); and all reddish dyes. The second mordant J. B. Vitalis, Cours élémentaire de teinture is produced by triturating and mixing one part (1823); M. Chevreuil, Cours de chimie appliof alum with 2 parts of the residuum (sulphatequée à la teinture (1831); Berthollet, Les éléof soda) of that mode of manufacturing nitric ments de l'art de la teinture (1840); and still acid in which nitrate of soda is employed. Two more recently, Manuel du teinturier, by M. and a quarter pounds of this mordant are equiv- Vergniaud (in the handbooks on industry pubalent to half that quantity of cream of tartar, lished by Rozet). Among the German works and it is to be used in the same way. It is lately published on the subject are: Schrader, suitable for all olive and brown dyes. The 3d Die Färberei im Kleinen (2d edit. Leipsic, 1857); mordant is prepared by triturating and mixing Leuchs, Verbesserungen in der Farbenfabrikatogether 5 parts of common salt and one part tion (Nuremberg, 1857); and Kurrer, Das Neuof the residuum of the manufacture of sul- este der Druck-und Färbekunst (Berlin, 1858). phuric acid where nitrate of potash is employ- DYER; a W.co. of Tenn., separated from Mo. ed. This mordant is to be used in the same by the Mississippi river, and drained by Obion proportion to cream of tartar as the 2d, and it is and Forked Deer rivers; area estimated at 400 applicable to black and dark colors only. The sq. m.; pop. in 1850, 6,361, of whom 1,468 were 4th mordant is formed by dissolving 6 parts slaves. "The soil is rich, and the surface level of alumina, 3 parts of nitric acid, and 1 part of and partly occupied by excellent timber tracts. caustic ley of 24° Beaumé in 20 quarts of boiling Yellow poplar timber forms one of the principal water. It may be used in dyers' baths for green articles of export. The other staples are Indian dyes of all shades and fancy dyes, in the pro- corn and tobacco. In 1850 the county produced portion of one pint for every 20 lbs. weight of 413,020 bushels of Indian corn, 22,832 of oats, the fabrics to be dyed.-Many experiments in 548,815 lbs. of tobacco, and 59,660 of butter. dyeing made by M. Kuhlmann were published in There were 12 churches and 700 pupils attendFrance at the beginning of 1859." This gen- ing public schools. Capital, Dyersburg. tleman having remarked that when eggs were DYER, GEORGE, an English author, born in a dyed some of them took colors better than suburb of London, March 15, 1755, died in Lonothers, and that this fixation of the color took don, March 2, 1841. He was educated at Christ's place without any mordant, was led to suppose hospital, where he was an associate of Charles that, in these cases, the fixation was not due to Lamb, and at Emmanuel college, Cambridge, the calcareous salt of which the egg shell is where he received the degree of bachelor in 1778. formed, but to the azotized coating upon its sur. He was successively a teacher, tutor, and Bapface. This supposition was subsequently veri- tist minister, residing most of the time either fied by experiment. As the coating of the egg at Cambridge or Oxford, till in 1792 he removed shell is analogous to albumen, this latter sub- to London, where he was engaged as parliamentstance, coagulated by heat, was tried separately ary reporter, teacher, and writer. În 1830 bis in baths of Brazil wood, &c., and its absorbing eyesight failed, and he at length became totally power thus shown. M. Kuhlmann then tried blind. He was a poet and frequent contributor to the use of this substance for the purpose of in- reviews, but is better known as a scholar and creasing the absorbing power of different tissues, antiquary. He was joint editor of Valpy's comand obtained very favorable results with cot- bination of the Delphin, Bipont, and Variorum ton, less distinct with silk, scarcely perceptible editions of the Latin classics, in 141 volumes, for with wool; these trials were made with Brazil which he furnished all the original matter exwood, madder, and Campeachy wood. After cept the preface. He published a “History of albumen he tried with the same success milk the University and Colleges of Cambridge” (Lonand caseum, which may be coagulated on the don, 1814), which is an excellent sketch rather surface of the tissues by means of an acid. Milk than a complete history. He also published a especially, alone or in connection with mordants, volume of poems (1812), a life of the Rev. Robert gave the cotton very full colors. He experi- Robinson, a work on the “Privileges of the Unimented also upon gelatine coagulated by tan- versity of Cambridge” (1824), and another entinin, and obtained results, although feeble, with- tled “ Academic Unity'! (1827). Talfourd refers out mordants. He also found that albumen may to bis“ simplicity of nature, not only unspotted serve as a medium for precipitating upon stuffs by the world, but almost abstracted from it," inetallic oxides, with which it forms insoluble and speaks of him as a breathing out at the age compounds; in dyeing, stuffs impregnated with of 85 the most blameless of lives, which began these compounds absorb colors with more ease in a struggle to end in a learned dream.” than if they had been prepared with albumen, DYER, JOHN, an English poet, born at Aberor with the same metallic salts alone. Analo- glasney, Caermarthenshire, in 1700, died July gous results were obtained with tannin-gelatine. 24, 1758. He was educated at Westminster,
and recalled to his native place to follow the bodies in motion, as distinguished from statics, profession of his father as solicitor. His taste, which considers bodies at rest. (See MECHANICS.) however, led him to poetry and the fine arts, DYNAMOMETER (Gr. Ouvajus, force, and and after a short study of painting he rambled petpov, a measure), an instrument originally deover England as an itinerant artist. In 1727 he signed to ascertain the strength of men and anipublished his “Grongar Hill," which he had mals, of the limbs of the body, the fingers, &c. written during his excursions—a poem marked Its application was afterward extended to the by warmth of sentiment and an elegant simpli- determination of the power exerted by machines, city of description. He travelled in Italy to or of any portions of them, and the instrument pursue his studies as a painter, but the best re- has hence come into use as a meter of the power sult of his observations was his poem entitled of engines. The principle of the earlier conthe “Ruins of Rome," which was published in trivances was to weigh the force exerted by the 1740. On his return from Italy, having little amount of compression or of deflection produced prospect of success as an artist, he entered holy upon an elliptical steel spring; this in the former orders, and married a lady named Ensor, whó, case being drawn together by the application of he says, was a descendant from Shakespeare. the power and of the resistance at the two opIn 1758 appeared his longer poem of " The posite ends, and in the latter separated by the Fleece,” in which he attempted to treat the force and resistance being applied upon the opsubject of wool in a poetical manner, and which posite sides of the spring, on the line of the is at least one of the most successful of the minor axis of the ellipse; an index upon a many imitations of Virgil's “Georgics." All graduated arc attached to the spring showed the the poems of Dyer abound in happy and careful amount of deflection. Another contrivance was pictures of nature, and in appropriate and gentle a spiral spring enclosed in a tube, the force being moral sentiments. His eulogy is pronounced by exerted to draw this together, precisely the same Johnson when he says that he who bas read thing as the ordinary spring balance. By such “ Grongar Hill" once will return to read it a means the greatest power exerted by one im. second time.
pulse was indicated; but as in most instances DYER, Mary, a disciple of Anne Hutchinson, the power is not constant for any determinate and a victim to the persecution which befell the time, the index must fluctuate in such a manner Quakers in the early history of Massachusetts, that the mean effort it should represent cannot was hanged on Boston common, June 1, 1660. be ascertained. If known, its amount multiplied The government of Massachusetts by a statute by the time of continuance of the operation excluded Quakers from the bounds of that col- would give as a result the value of the whole ony, and sentenced to death any one of that power exerted. Instruments have been devised sect who should be guilty of a second visit to by MM. Poncelet, Morin, and others, which the peculiar land of the Puritans. The statute should register upon papers, made to pass by a was little regarded, or rather was construed as clock-work movement under the index, curved an invitation instead of a menace, by the en- lines from which the whole power could be dithusiastic and devoted believers against whom rectly calculated from the areas enclosed-the it was directed. Mary Dyer had departed from ordinates of the curves representing the power their jurisdiction upon the enactment of the law, exerted, and the abscissas the length of time, or but soon after returned on purpose to offer up in some instances of the space run over. The her life. She was arrested and sent to prison apparatus might be fixed to a carriage, the length full of joy, wrote from the gaol a remonstrance of the index paper in this instance bearing a in which she pronounced her persecutors dis- certain proportion to the length of the road obedient and deceived, was reprieved after being gone over. “A great number of different forms led forth to execution and after the rope had of this instrument have been devised by eminent been put around her neck, and was against her engineers of France, England, and the United will conveyed out of the colony. She speedily States. One by Watt, improved by Macknaught, returned, and suffered as a willing martyr. gives the force exerted by the piston of a steam
DYMOND, JONATHAN, an English writer on engine against a spiral spring, a style attached ethics, born in Exeter in 1796, died May 6, 1828. to the piston inscribing a line representing its The son of a linen draper, and himself engaged position during the unrolling of the paper which in the business, he composed his books amid moves at an even rate against it. The principle the pressure of other occupations and without of this is the same as that of anemometers, which the resources of a learned education. He wrote are dynamometers limited in their application to principally in the early hours of morning, and measuring the force of the wind. In the Dic published in 1823 an “Inquiry into the Accord- tionnaire des arts et manufactures the subject ance of War with the Principles of Christianity,” is fully treated in the article Dynamomètre, by a work which attracted much attention. His M. Laboulaye. The descriptions of the varions fame chiefly rests on his " Essays on the Princi- forms of the apparatus are made intelligible by ples of Morality," which proves him to have many illustrations. In Appleton's “Dictionary possessed a discriminating mind, and simple and of Mechanics," also, many forms of the apparatus clear views of Christian ethics.
are figured and described; and the following DYNAMICS (Gr. 8vvapes, force), that depart- simple contrivance, applicable in some instances, ment of mechanics which treats abstractly of is proposed. A cylinder of some material hea.