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charged. I therefore give a cut of Mr. Gill's vertical mill for 2 horses. (See fig. 5).
WEIGHT, CAPACITY AND PRICES.
long; wrought-iron journals 23 and 24 inches in diameter. This mill may
$50 00 No. 2. Capacity 40 to 50 gallons of juice per hour. Has one 12 inch and two 8 inch rolls 7 inches long. Weight 500 lbs. Price....
$50 00 No. 3. Capacity 50 to 60 gallons of juice per hour. Rolls, same as in No. 2, 10 inches long. Weight 700 lbs. Price..
$65 00 No. 4. Capacity 50 to 70 gallons of juice per hour. Has three 9 inch rolls 15 inches
long; one wrought-iron journal 23 and 24 inches. Weight 900 lbs. Price.. $75 00 No. 6. Capacity 60 to 90 gallons of juice per hour. Has one 12 inch roll and two 9
inch by 15 inches long; wrought-iron journals 23 and 24 inches. Weight
$90 00 No. 7. Capacity 80 to 120 gallons of juice per hour. Has one 12 inch roll and two 9
inch by 19 inches long; wrought-iron journals 24 inches. Weight 1,300 lbs.
$115 00 No. 8. Capacity 120 to 150 gallons of juice per hour. Has one 20 inch roll and two 11 inch rolls 12 inches long. Price...
$180 00 No. 9. Capacity 150 to 225 gallons of juice per hour. Rolls, same as No. 8, 16 inches long. Price
$200 00 (See fig. 6).
Capacity from 250 to 350 gallons of juice per hour. Weighs 3,000 lbs.
"To give the farmer some idea of the amount of strength required in the smallest mills used, I would venture to say that when two eight inch rollers, twelve inches long, are keyed or screwed up sufficiently tight, to take out as much juice as should be taken out of the number of canes which ought to be worked in a good mill of that size, there is a pressure upon the journals of about forty tons; or twenty times as much as would be regarded a heary load for a good farm wagon. This fact will serve to caution cane growers against paying out money for light cheap mills, as such have in numberless instances proved to be really more expensive than strong ones, (costing more at the outset) because of the vexatious delays, and loss of crops they have occasioned, to say nothing of the cost of repairs." (Clark's Sorghum Grower's Manual). The mills are usually run slowly not exceeding one foot per second.
It has been before remarked that the mill should have about twice as much capacity as the evaporators, in order to avoid the necessity of run. ning them during the night as well as to give time for making necessary repairs. In certain states of the atmosphere these accumulations of juice will ferment very rapidly. Cases have been reported to me where the juice has been entirely spoiled in one or two hours after leaving the mill. This tendency is perfectly counteracted by the addition of from one gill to two pints of the bisulphite of lime to an hundred gallons of juice. The exact amount required can be very readily ascertained by preliminary experi ments upon a small scale. When exposed to the air the sulphurous gas escapes freely, those who use it should therefore be careful to keep it in a well bunged barrel or other tightly closed vessel. I believe the bisulphite is only manufactured by J. M. Gordon, of Cincinnati, and the Clark Co., at Cincinnati, and Messrs. Gill, at Columbus, are the only houses that have it on sale.
CLARIFICATION. The juice of the cane is a solution of sugar in water, with traces of albumen, cellulose, gum, and of a peculiar substance resembling gluten, or
vegetable gelatine, also a minute portion of cerosine, of a green vegetable hue and chlorophyl. The juice has an acid reaction. All of these matters have a tendency to transform the cane sugar, and the practical indication is to separate them froin it as soon as possible.
I saw no attempt to clarify the juice in Illinois, nor did I see a single specimen of clear swect syrup; all of it had a disagreeable herbaceous taste which no castern palate could tolerate as a substitute for molasses. Most of it is sent to the sugar refinery of Mr. Belcher, at Chicago, where its feculences are purged by processes with which I am not acquainted, and it becomes a very excellent article. I believe no sugar, at least in commercial quantities, has ever been made by Mr. Belcher.
The first really good syrups that I saw at the West was made by Wil. liam Edgerton, in Indiana. Samples of his syrup and sugar, (the latter being the finest specimen that I ever saw) are deposited in the museum of the society.
Various kinds of fruit preserved in sorghum sugar and syrup were shown to me, which were very excellent. The currant jelly thus preserved was very pleasant in its flavor, but the color was changed to a dull brick red, tlie color of the other preserved fruits did not appear different from those preserved with West India sugar.
Mr. Edgerton was much opposed to any clarification, effected by the introduction of chemicals, and strenuously maintained that every thing that required to be removed from the juice could be effected by the judicious application of heat and the careful use of the skimmer. Mr. E., has contrived several mechanical improvements in sugar apparatus, designed to diminish the laborer and increase the convenience of the operator, but his mode of evaporating was as simple as any that I saw at the West. The excellence of his products seemed to me to be due to his superior skill and intelligence, and to the thorough cleanliness which was maintained throughout the establishment. He was assisted by two of his sisters, who were exceedingly neat and wide awake women, who took a deep interest in the minutest details and carried into the sugar house all the order and neatness of a well regulated household. With such assistance the products must be necessarily superior to those which are conducted by raw and unintelligent Irishmen.
I afterwards had an opportunity of seeing syrup made from juice clarified with lime water, and although the color of the syrup is inevitably darkened, it was so superior in clearness and sweetness to that made from the unclarified juice, that I cannot hesitate to recommend it to the farmers of New York.
The usual method of clarifying with lime, is to run the juice from the mill into a large pan set over a brick arch, where it is brought to a temperature of about 80° F. Milk of lime at 5° B is then introduced and thoroughly st rred in until it is nearly neutral, which may be ascertained by a slight reddening of litmus paper. The temperature is then raised; a thick scum rises which consists of the albuminous matters, and some vegetable extracts coagulated by the action of the lime and heat. When it reaches about 2100 F the scum begins to crack and a white foam exudes through the fissures; at this point the pan is to be removed from the fire immediately, as, if rapid ebullition ensues, the feculences would be reincorporated with the juice, and the results sought to be accomplished by the clarifying process would be lost. After the removal of the pan, the scum is carefully removed by means of a skimmer made of woven wire, the juice is then left to stand for two or three hours when a copious deposit of gummy and saline matters will be found settled on the bottom, the clear liquor is now to be removed by a syphon from the slimy deposit into a reservoir, from which it flows into the evaporating pan.
Mr. C. Jacobs, of Columbus, uses the bisulphite of lime instead of milk of lime as a clarifier. Last year he found 1 pint to 100 gallons quite sufficient, but this year, owing to the unripe state of the cane he is obliged to use a quart. A sample of Mr. Jacobs' syrup is deposited in the museum of the society, it is very clear, of a fine color, and of an agreeable flavor, but I fancy that I detect a disagreeable sulphurous odor in it, others cannot discover it, and I may be mistaken; still if I were to enter upon the manufacture myself, I should certainly prefer to use the milk of lime as a clarifier.
Much prejudice against the use of lime has been excited by its abuse. I saw large lumps of it lying in some of the pans after the removal of the juice, the color of the syrup, as might be expected from this excess, was black, its consistency was tarry and its taste was revolting. The true way is to graduate the amount of lime by the litmus paper test, as directed above, it should be added until the paper is slightly redder than it is before it is introduced, not a particle more should be in; no injury can result from its use to this extent, but on the contrary a great improvement will be introduced.
There are several other agents employed in defecation, as the dust of bone coal, acetate of lead, bullock's blood, milk and eggs, but as I did not see any of them in use myself, I refer the society to the works on sugar in which their use is described.
EVAPORATION. As I have already remarked, the pan invented by Mr. Brainerd, is chiefly used in Illinois, or at least in the places that I visited and it is much approved by those who use it. I never saw a gallon of good syrup made upon
these pans. Wheather it was owing to inherent defects in the principle of the pau or want of skill in the operators, I do not pretend to determine. (See fig. 7.)
PRICE OF PANS AT THE SHOP FOR 1863.
12 50 No. 2 Pan, 50 to 70 gallons juice per hour....
25 00 Grate Bars, Doors, Pipe and Dampers...
15 00 No. 3 Pan, 70 to 100 gallons juice per hour.
20 00 Boilers made to any capacity up to 1000 gallons per day of syrup. Portable Iron Furnaces furnished to order.
The pan will be understood from a simple inspection of the cut. The juice flows in from the reservoir A, flowing onward beneath the partitions