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Copyright, 1906, by W. B. Van Ingen “THE FOOT-WASHING CEREMONY OF THE MENNONITES” One of a series of fourteen mural paintings by Mr. Van Ingen, representing the Religious Sects of Pennsylvania
of which is a suite of apartments on the left of the entablature. A particularly attractive for the judges, on the right for the Bar. feature is the gilt bronze necklace of anthemion
The room itself, 72 feet by 42, has a pair of design that encircles the collar to the dome. large windows at each end; but these during The drum of the latter is divided into twelve the sessions of the court are to be obscured by windows, framed with Greek grille, opening heavy hangings of velour, thus leaving the into the outer shell and thus affording ventiladome the sole source of outside light. The tion. The dome itself, consisting of twelve interior finish is of mahogany, in the purest segments, is constructed of American glass, style of the Greek Doric, its proportions and with a pattern of green scroll-work upon a mouldings being based on those of the Erec- ground clouded with amber, pearl, and gray. theum. Around the walls proceeds a wainscot The embellishment of the main door, similar nine feet high, divided into panels, which, like in design to that of the windows, comprises those of the doors and the frames of the win two Ionic columns supporting an entablature dows, are decorated with Greek grille, that in upon which rests a richly moulded pediment, modern language may be described as a union the angles of the latter adorned with the Greek of the Greek and St. George's crosses. The ornament known as acroteria. wall space above the cornice of the wainscot,
THE ARCHITECT'S INSPIRATION later to be adorned by Mr. Abbey with mural paintings typifying the evolution of the various Every good architect is something of an branches of Law, is divided into panels by idealist. It is the artist in him that makes him pilasters, while four pairs of much larger a dreamer of dreams, even while he must be a pilasters occupy the angles of the walls. These practical man. With such men and Mr. support a beautiful entablature, consisting of Huston is one of them—the artistic conception an architrave of three plain bands, a frieze of a building like this Capitol is in a dream. decorated with the anthemion, or honey- The offspring of a union of memory and creasuckle ornament, and a cornice that comprises tiveness, it is full-grown at birth and stands the heart-and-leaf motive, dentils, and egg clear to the eye of the spirit as objects loom up and-dart moulding. Upon this decorative complete in a sleeper's vision. So a painter structure of mahogany rests the ceiling, which is may see his picture finished before the canvas is divided up into coffers that surround the circular stretched, a sculptor his group before he has opening of the dome with beams, decorated in touched the clay. For each of them the white and gold, with ornament similar to that vision is a reality, more real even than the
finished work: for the one is what he had in Where will be found a nobler ideal ? It his soul to accomplish; the other is what after is rich in inspiration for the present as pains of labor and under many limitations it for the past, not without its condemnation has actually become.
of experiments that are unholy, and full Therefore to enter into a man's work, as he
of reminder that precedent begets precat length delivers it over to the world, one eden continually. Who shall say 'what should try to enter also into the spirit that be- buildings in other states may be patterned got it. The hard thing always is to find the after this ? how its influence may react on clue. In the case of this building, I found its own? It will be a precedent for good. it-for myself at any rate—in the inscription And in art one of the synonyms for good is that twice encircles the interior of the dome. beautiful. The utterance will be recognized as William Standing beneath the dome, I believe that Penn's:
the architect's ideal was that of a shrine, con
ceived as a habitation for the spirit of this “THERE MAY BE ROOM FOR SUCH A HOLY EX
utterance-great, as befits the magnitude of its PERIMENT FOR THE NATIONS WANT A PRECEDENT. AND MY GOD WILL MAKE IT THE SEED OF A NATION significance; soaring high, as with its aspiraTHAT AN EXAMPLE MAY BE SET UP TO THE NATIONS. tion; strong, serene, and beautiful as the faith THAT WE MAY DO THE THING THAT IS TRULY WISE
that is in it. AND JUST.”
THE ROMANTIC STORY OF GARDNER WILLIAMS, THE AMERICAN ENGINEER
M. G. CUNNIFF
HEN Mr. Alfred Mosely, the Eng went to the Mining Academy of Freiberg,
lishman who so admires American among the lead mines of Saxony. On his re
ways that he brings commissions turn to San Francisco in 1866, two well-spent over to study them, was asked the reason of years in the mint made him an expert assayer, his admiration, he said:
and then he went to mining in the Pioche coun“Gardner F. Williams, the American mining try of southern Nevada. He came back to be engineer who directs the diamond output of appointed receiver of a water and mining comthe world."
pany in northern California. Within a year Mr. Mosely made his fortune in South Africa. the company was paying dividends for the first He watched Cecil Rhodes's dream of empire time and his diplomacy had brought into hardevelop and knew the men who made it real. mony the two warring factions that had necesThe one who took his imagination was Gardner sitated the receivership. Williams. “The country that can produce From this post he was called, by an invitasuch a man,” he said to himself, "is a country tion from a classmate at Freiberg named De from which mine can learn."
Crano, who had organized an exploring comFew men have earned such a tribute. Here pany for the Rothschilds, to look for valuable was a man who had left Michigan at the age
of minerals in Mashonaland. Then began his fifteen to go with a pioneering father to Cali- acquaintance with bush and karroo, with the fornia in the flush days of the early mining slow advance of ox teams across the level veldt, camps, had had a taste of California mining, with the handling of Zulus and Matabeles and had gone when still a young man to explore other natives, with the sturdy but pig-headed in South Africa, and had become general Boers, with the adventurers who were rushing manager of the great monopoly of the diamond in hordes to this new Golconda. He shot elemines. A fighter of financial battles and a phants and lions, lived off the country, panned manager of men, a writer, a scientist, and one and tested the sand and gravel of every stream, of the world's greatest engineers, he so stamped and scoured the region for promising outcrops his personality on the people among whom he or hints of value. On his way back to London lived that he was fêted and cheered by all to report he fell in with Cecil Rhodes, who South Africa when he retired last spring and happened to be a fellow passenger on the came back to the United States to build a home steamer-a meeting that proved to be the turn for his leisure years in the land of his birth. ing point in his career. Here was a man who played a man's part in Rhodes had often said that he strove for perhaps the most inspiring and romantic under- wealth, because only through wealth could taking of his time.
he hope to realize his plan of British empire His father went, with a little capital, to in South Africa. “Chinese” Gordon once California in the fifties and the son entered told him of refusing a roomful of gold with California College-afterward the University. which the Chinese Government wished to He wished to become a mining engineer, reward him for subduing the Taiping rebellion. but there was no good mining school in the “What would you have done?” he asked country. “Perfect yourself,” said his father, Rhodes. "even if you have to go abroad." So off he “Taken it,' was the reply, “and as many
more roomfuls as they would have given me. as he could, a vision of an Africa “all red” It's no use to us to have big ideas, if we haven't with the tint of British dominion, he decided the money to carry them out."
that if his vision were to crystallize into fact, he And since it was on the claims he controlled must do the work himself. He would gain in the De Beers diamond mine that he based control of the diamond mines, form a gigantic his hopes of wealth, he talked eagerly with this private corporation, and then push forward American mining engineer, as the steamer under its aegis. kicked its way up the African coast, of possible The picture that the diamond fields then ways to make his diamond mining pay as presented was this: The first diamond seekers hugely as he thought it should. Arm in arm had ruled that mining claims should be thirty they paced the deck day after day and evening feet square. From these little claims the after evening. They were kindred spirits. miners had proceeded to take out the diamondRhodes told Williams what he knew of the bearing blue-ground. As the holes went deeper wild land that the American had been explor- it soon became plain that the blue-ground was ing, and Williams explained and diagramed the filling of the craters of extinct volcanoes, the art of mining. And both talked of men ringed in a roughly circular form with “reef,” and of how men may be handled.
as the worthless country rock is called. The After a short stay in England, Mr. Williams craters—there were four of them: DeBeers, came home to see his family. In the midst Kimberly, Dutoitspan, and Bultfonteinof his visit he was surprised to receive a cable looked like pits swarmed over by ants, for the gram from Rhodes asking him to resign from claimholders and their Kaffir workmen were the Exploration Company and come out and feverishly digging away at their blocks of take charge of his diamond minc. He started ground, some at one depth and some at anat once for London, met Rhodes, and early in other, hoisting their output to the edge of the 1886 sailed back to the Cape as General crater by long cables that slanted into the huge Manager of the DeBeers Company. He took pits like filaments of cobweb. In some cases hold of the mining operations at once and the thirty-foot claims had been subdivided; quickly familiarized himself with conditions. in other cases a number had been consolidated. Then Rhodes unfolded his big idea.
Only the De Beers Company and a few others It had been taken for granted when the had done any underground mining. Already diamonds were discovered that the fields were the claim-holders were being troubled by unin Boer territory in the Orange Free State. expected avalanches from the sides of the The British, however, had asserted that the crater, which were sliding down and burying boundary of the Griqua country over which claims clear to the centre of the crater under they had a protectorate included the diamond tons of “reef.” It was becoming evident that fields, and they had organized the district as open mining would have to be abandoned. the British territory of Griqualand West. Its The DeBeers Company by its successive northern boundary, however, had not been accretions had already become the strongest accurately surveyed. Mankoroane, a native element in the De Beers mine; but in the other chief, maintained that some of his territory had prize crater, the Kimberly mine, Barney been included. Rhodes, who was then a Barnato, in control of the Central claims, was member of the Cape Parliament, had himself the leading figure. Mr. Williams, talking appointed one of a delimitation commission to with claim-holder after claim-holder in the straighten the matter out. Once out of com De Beers mine in the next two years, gradually munication with Capetown, he treated with made them see that it was to their interest to Mankoroane as if he were Minister, Peace- amalgamate with the De Beers companycommissioner, and Sovereign in one. Making until the control of that crater was clinched. concessions to the chief, he secured his whole The problem was to get a footing in the Kimterritory, including all of Lower Bechuanaland berly mine. Here there were two other large -and then calmly came back and asked the holdings beside Barnato's Central-one called Cape Government to ratify his action. It re the French Company, the other W. A. Hall's fused. He turned then to the British Govern Claims. Rhodes tried to buy the Hall Claims, ment, which reluctantly established a protec but in vain. Here was a check. torate. Then disgusted with the lack of inter “Let us buy the French Company,” said est of the two Governments, who could not see, Mr. Williams.
“How shall we raise the money?" returned Barnato acquiesced. Rhodes's DeBeers ComRhodes.
pany, then, now in possession of the whole "Let me try," said the General Manager. De Beers crater, acquired in the Kimberly crater
Forthwith he wrote to London to his old not the French Company's property, but a friends Mr. DeCrano and Mr. Hamilton fifth of the shares in Barnato's Central ComSmith, the founders of the Exploration Com pany which owned it. This seemed a very pany. Outlining the situation, he requested slight footing in the Kimberly crater. It them to put the matter to Lord Rothschild and looked as if Rhodes and Williams had lost and to ask him if he would finance the enterprise Barnato had won. if Rhodes could persuade the French Com Barnato immediately began to operate the pany to sell.
Before a reply could come, Central mine, now the predominant working Rhodes suggested that they follow on the heels in the Kimberly crater, in competition with the of the letter and hammer while the iron was DeBeers mine which Mr. Williams was graduhot. They met Mr. DeCrano in London, and ally bringing under a unified system. Such the three went into conference with Lord was the output that Mr. Williams was able to Rothschild. Rhodes declared that he needed show Rhodes that, with anything like equal a million pounds sterling. Rothschild was efficiency in the development of the Kimberly non-committal. The meeting broke up on the mine, more diamonds would soon be produced understanding that Rhodes and Mr. Williams than the market would take without smashing should see first what could be done with the prices and perhaps ruining the companies. French Company. Rhodes went out of the “Monopoly is the only possibility,” he said. door first. As Mr. Williams and Mr. De Rhodes tried to get Barnato to work in harmony Crano were making their adieus Rothschild with him to control the market, but the Kimsaid to them: “If Mr. Rhodes can buy the com berly man said, "No." pany, I think I can raise the million pounds." Rhodes immediately decided that the only
That night Rhodes, Mr. Williams, and Mr. chance for monopoly lay in acquiring control DeCrano went to Paris. Within a week they of the Central Company. He brought his had persuaded the directors of the French project before the late Alfred Beit, who, comCompany to sell. Back in London, Rhodes ing to South Africa as a diamond buyer, had told Lord Rothschild that £750,000 would do. organized the firm of Wernher, Beit & Co., The money was paid over; 50,000 shares of and had become a powerful figure in the diathe DeBeers Company's stock at £15 a share mond market and in the development of claims were issued to take up the loan; and the Roths in the Kimberly mine. He asked for £2,000,000. childs entered a syndicate to sell the stock. Beit said what Lord Rothschild had said, “I'll The far-sighted Rhodes arranged with Lord find the money, if you will get the shares." Rothschild that the DeBeers Company should Straightway Rhodes began buying shares of take half of any profit the syndicate should the Central mine in open market. Barnato make on the stock between prices of £15 and joined issue. He too began buying. Up and £20 a share within three months. By this little up went the price of the stock and neither man afterthought, in which Rhodes out-financed flinched. Time and again Rhodes made offers a Rothschild, the company made £100,000. to Barnato, but the little Kimberly man stuck The huge loan had not merely cost them noth to his guns. Finally, when the stock had ing-it had paid a profit.
reached an outrageous figure and the price of On the return of the two men to South diamonds had dropped to fourteen shillings Africa contented with their success, Barnato a carat, Rhodes invited Barnato to confer with saw what was coming, and began to fight. him. They walked the floor all night, Rhodes He besought the stockholders of the French working as he had never worked before, and Company not to ratify the sale their directors when morning came Barnato had surrendered. had made, offering them £300,000 more than Rhodes had succeeded in persuading him that the De Beers Company had paid for the pro some of Barnato's own directors and largest perty. Rhodes, however, persuaded Barnato shareholders had been disloyally unloading to permit the sale to go through as agreed, on their stock on him, that the Kimberly man was the understanding that the French Com really standing alone. It was one of the greatpany's property should be turned over to Bar est financial battles of the century, and Rhodes nato's Central Company in return for shares. won by the sheer force of his personality, for