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Brazil, Costa Rica, France, Great Britain, Guatimala, Mexico, New Granada, Portugal, Prussia, Russia, and Spain; by Ministers Resident, from Austria, Bremen, Netherlands, Peru, Sweden, Denmark, Sardinia, and Switzerland. With two or three unimportant exceptions. the Foreign Ministers reside in Washington.
The library contains a very fine collection of books, and, with the many important documents in the keeping of the department, is worthy of examination.
In the first session of the first Congress, an act was passed, which was approved on the second day of September, 1789, to “ Establish the Treasury Department.” By this legislation, a Secretary, Comptroller, Solicitor, Treasurer, and Assistant Secretary were ordered to be appointed.
The walls of the Treasury extension, above the cellar, are : a basement story, forming a stylobate, and, resting on it, an ordonnance of antæ, of the Ionic order, 45 feet in height: The stylobate is intended to be decidedly of a Grecian character; its base, die, and cornice are beautiful in themselves, but as here brought together they have an effect peculiarly appropriate and pleasing. The window openings in the die are managed so as to give them all the character needed, without loading them with ornament; and the whole arrangement of sills and piers, and the continued cornice, which serves as a window cap, is entirely novel. The antæ and the filling of the spaces between them are so arranged as to accomplish the very difficult combination of the adaptation of Grecian architecture to modern uses, without spoiling its inherent beauties. The style of architecture is more fully preserved, and its design carried out, by the use of single blocks for the columns and antæ. The arrangement of the interior of the new building varies essentially from that of the old, and from public offices generally, in being divided into larger and more commodious rooms. Instead of the narrow, cell-like apartments, with one, or at most two, windows, into which the public departments in Washington are generally subdivided, the Treasury extension presents the novelty of spacious and airy saloons, capable of accommodating the following bureaus :
The Secretary's Office, which is charged with the general supervision of the fiscal transactions of the government, and of the execution of the laws concerning the commerce and navigation of the United States. He superintends the survey of the coast, the light-house establishment, the marine hospitals of the United States, and the construction of certain public buildings for customhouses and other
The First Comptroller's Office prescribes the mode of · keeping and rendering accounts for the civil and diplomatic service, as well as the public lands, and revises and certifies the balances arising thereon.
The Second Comptroller's Office prescribes the mode of keeping and rendering the accounts of the Army, Navy, and Indian Departments of the public service, and revises and certifies the balances arising thereon.
The Office of Commissioner of Customs prescribes the mode of keeping and rendering the accounts of the customs revenue and disbursements, and for the building and repairing custom-houses, &c., and revises and certifies the balances arising thereon.
The First Auditor's Office receives and adjusts the accounts of the customs revenue and disbursements, appropriations and expenditures on account of the civil list and under private acts of Congress, and reports the balances to the Commissioner of the Customs and the First Comptroller, respectively, for their decision thereon.
The Second Auditor's Office receives and adjusts all accounts relating to the pay, clothing, and recruiting of the army, as well as armories, arsenals, and ordnance, and all accounts relating to the Indian bureau, and reports the balances to the Second Comptroller for his decision thereon.
The Third Auditor's Office adjusts all accounts for subsistence of the army, fortifications, military academy, military roads, and the quartermaster's department, as well as for pensions, claims arising from military services previous to 1816, and for horses and other property lost in the military service, under various acts of Congress, and reports the balances to the Second Comptroller for his decision thereon.
The Fourth Auditor's Office adjusts all accounts for the service of the Navy Department, and reports the balances to the Second Comptroller for his decision thereon.
The Fifth Auditor's Office adjusts all accounts for diplomatic and similar services performed under the direction of the State Department, and reports the balances to the First Comptroller for his decision thereon.
The Sixth Auditor's Office adjusts all accounts arising from the service of the Post Office Department. His decisions are final, unless an appeal be taken in twelve months to the First Comptroller. He superintends the collection of all debts due the Post Office Department, and all penalties and forfeitures imposed on postmasters and mail contractors for failing to do their duty; he directs suits and legał proceedings, civil and criminal, and takes all such measures as may be authorized by law to enforce the prompt payment of moneys due to the department,-instructing United States attorneys, marshals, and clerks, on all matters relating thereto,—and receives returns from each term of the United States courts of the condition and progress of such suits and legal proceedings; has charge of all lands and other property assigned to the United States in payment of debts due the Post Office Department, and has power to sell and dispose of the same for the benefit of the United States.
The Treasurer's Office receives and keeps the moneys of the United States in his own office and that of the depositories created by the act of August 6th, 1846, and pays out the same upon warrants drawn by the Secretary of the Treasury, countersigned by the First Comptroller, and upon warrants drawn by the Postmaster-General, and countersigned by the Sixth Auditor, and recorded by the Register. He also holds public moneys advanced by warrant to disbursing officers, and pays out the same upon their checks.
The Register's Office keeps the accounts of public receipts and expenditures ; receives the returns, and makes out the official statement of commerce and navigation of the United States; and receives from the First Comptroller and Commissioner of Customs all accounts and vouchers decided by them, and is charged by law with their safe keeping.
The Solicitor's Office superintends all civil suits commenced by the United States (except those arising in the Post Office Department), and instructs the United States' attorneys, marshals, and clerks, in all matters relating to them and their results. He receives returns from each term of the United States courts, showing the progress and condition of such suits ; has charge of all lands and other property assigned to the United States in payment of debts (except those assigned in payment of debts due the Post Office Department), and has power to sell and dispose of the same for the benefit of the United States.
The Light-House Board, of which the Secretary of the Treasury is ex-officio president, but in the deliberations of which he has the assistance of naval, military, and scientific coadjutors.
United States Coast Survey. The Superintendent, with numerous assistants employed in the office and upon the survey of the coast, are under the control of this department. A statement of their duties will be found in the next chapter.
Being charged with the collection of the revenue, the semi-naval service known as the Revenue Service is very