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The First Comptroller's Office prescribes the mode of keeping and rendering accounts for the civil and diplomatic service, as well as the public lands, and revises and certifies the balances arising thereon.

The Second Comptroller's Office prescribes the mode of keeping and rendering the accounts of the Army, Navy, and Indian Departments of the public service, and revises and certifies the balances arising thereon.

The Office of Commissioner of Customs prescribes the mode of keeping and rendering the accounts of the customs revenue and disbursements, and for the building and repairing custom-houses, &c., and revises and certifies the balances arising thereon.

The First Auditor's Office receives and adjusts the accounts of the customs revenue and disbursements, appropriations and expenditures on account of the civil list and under private acts of Congress, and reports the balances to the Commissioner of the Customs and the First Comptroller, respectively, for their decision thereon.

The Second Auditor's Office receives and adjusts all accounts relating to the pay, clothing, and recruiting of the army, as well as armories, arsenals, and ordnance, and all accounts relating to the Indian bureau, and reports the balances to the Second Comptroller for his decision thereon.

The Third Auditor's Office adjusts all accounts for subsistence of the army, fortifications, military academy, military roads, and the quartermaster's department, as well as for pensions, claims arising from military services previous to 1816, and for horses and other property lost in the military service, under various acts of Congress, and reports the balances to the Second Comptroller for his decision thereon.

The Fourth Auditor's Office adjusts all accounts for the service of the Navy Department, and reports the balances to the Second Comptroller for his decision thereon.

The Fifth Auditor's Ofice adjusts all accounts for diplomatic and similar services performed under the direction of the State Department, and reports the balances to the First Comptroller for his decision thereon.

The Sixth Auditor's Office adjusts all accounts arising from the service of the Post Office Department. His decisions are final, unless an appeal be taken in twelve months to the First Comptroller. He superintends the collection of all debts due the Post Office Department, and all penalties and forfeitures imposed on postmasters and mail contractors for failing to do their duty; he directs suits and legal proceedings, civil and criminal, and takes all such measures as may be authorized by law to enforce the prompt payment of moneys due to the department,-instructing United States attorneys, marshals, and clerks, on all matters relating thereto,-and receives returns from each term of the United States courts of the condition and progress of such suits and legal proceedings; has charge of all lands and other property assigned to the United States in payment of debts due the Post Office Department, and has power to sell and dispose of the same for the benefit of the United States.

The Treasurer's Office receives and keeps the moneys of the United States in his own office and that of the depositories created by the act of August 6th, 1846, and pays out the same upon warrants drawn by the Secretary of the Treasury, countersigned by the First Comptroller, and upon warrants drawn by the Postmaster-General, and countersigned by the Sixth Auditor, and recorded by the Register. He also holds public moneys advanced by warrant to disbursing officers, and pays out the same upon their checks.

The Register's Office keeps the accounts of public receipts and expenditures; receives the returns, and makes out the official statement of commerce and navigation of the United States; and receives from the First Comptroller and Commissioner of Customs all accounts and vouchers decided by them, and is charged by law with their safe keeping.

The Solicitor's Office superintends all civil suits commenced by the United States (except those arising in the Post Office Department), and instructs the United States' attorneys, marshals, and clerks, in all matters relating to them and their results. He receives returns from each term of the United States courts, showing the progress and condition of such suits; has charge of all lands and other property assigned to the United States in payment of debts (except those assigned in payment of debts due the Post Office Department), and has power to sell and dispose of the same for the benefit of the United States.

The Light-House Board, of which the Secretary of the Treasury is ex-officio president, but in the deliberations of which he has the assistance of naval, military, and scientific coadjutors.

United States Coast Survey. The Superintendent, with numerous assistants employed in the office and upon the survey of the coast, are under the control of this department. A statement of their duties will be found in the next chapter.

Being charged with the collection of the revenue, the semi-naval service known as the Revenue Service is very properly placed in the control of this department, and is not identified with the United States Navy.

Some idea of the magnitude and importance of this executive branch of the government may be formed by an examination of the following statement of the value of foreign merchandise imported, re-exported, and consumed annually, from 1821 to 1859, inclusive, and the estimated population and rate of consumption per capita during the same period :

YEARS ENDING

.

September 30, 1821.

1822.. 1823. 1824., 1925.. 1826. 1827 1828 1829. 1830. 1831 1832 1833.. 1834.. 1835.. 1886. 1837. 1888. 1839 1840.. 1841.

1842. 9 months to June 30, 1813. Year to June 30, 1844.

1845.. 1846. 1847.. 1848. 1849.. 1950.. 151. 1852.. 1959.. 1851.. 1855.. 1856. 1857 1859. 1959

Value of Foreign Merchandise.

Popula-
Consumed

tion.
Re-expor-

and Imported ted. on hand. $62,585,724 $21.302,488 $41,283,236 9,960,974 $4 14

83,241, 541| 22,256,202 60,955,339 10,283,757 5 92 77,579 267 27,543,622 50,035, 645 10,606,540 4 71 80,549,007 25,337,157 55,211,850 10,929 323 5 05 96,340,075 32,590 643 63,749,432 11.252,176 5 66 84,974,477 24,539 612 60,434,865 11,574 889 5 22 79,484,068 23,403,136 56,080,932 11.897,672 4 71 88,509,824 21,595,017 66,914 807 12,220,455 5 47 74,492,527 16,658,478 87,834,049 12,243.238 4 61 70,876,920 14,387,479 66,489,441 12 566,020 4 89 103,191,124 20.033,526 83,157,598 13 286,364 6 25 101,029,266 24,039' 473 76.989,793 13,706 707 5 61 108,118,311 19 S22,735 88 295 576 14,127,050 6 25 1226,521,332 23,312,811 103,248,521 14.547,393 7 09 149,895,742 20,504,495 129,891,247 14,967,736 8 64 189,980,035 21,746,860 168, 233,675 15,388,079 10 93 140,989 217 21,854,962 119,134,255 15'808,422 7 53 113,717,404| 12,452,795 101,264.609 16,228,765 623 162,092,132 17,494,525 144,597,607 16 649,108 8 63 107,141,519 18,190.312 88,951,207 17,069,453 5 21 127,946,177 15,469,081 112 477,096 17,612,507 6 88 100.162,087 11,721,5:38 89 440 549 18'155,561 4 87 64,753,799 6,552,697 58 201,102 18,698,615 3 11 108,435,035 11,484,8671 96,950, 168 19,241,670 5 03 117,254,564 15,346,830 101.907. 734 19,784,725 5 15 121,691,797 11,316,623 110.315, 174 20,327, 780 5 42 146,545,638 8,011.158 138,534,480 20,780,835 6 60 154,998.928 21,128,010 133. 870.918 21,413.890 6 25 147,857,439 13,098,865 154,768,574 21.956,945 6 13 178,138,318 14,951.808 163,186 510 23.246,301 7 02 216,224 932 21,698,293 194,526, 639 24,250,000 & 12 212,945,442 17,289,382 195,656,060 24,500,000 810 267,978,647| 17,558,460 250,420,187 25.000,00 10 00 304,562,381 24,830,191 279.712.187 25 750,000 10 00 261,462,520 28,448,293 233,020,227 26,500,000 8 79 814,639.942 16,373 578 295.261.364 27,400,000 10 88 360,89 ,141 23,975.617 336,914,524 28,500,000 11 82 282,613 150 80,886,142 231,727,008 29 500,000 8 80 338,768.180 20,895.177 817 878.00 3 30,885,000 10 46

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The exigencies to which the colonies were exposed forced them at an early period to concentrate their defensive power. The military successes of Washington and his generals were greatly retarded by the cumbersome arrangements of direct correspondence with and instructions from Congress, in which parties and cliques were frequently stronger than patriotism; the frozen and bleeding feet of revolutionary soldiers, as at Valley Forge, being sometimes counted of less consequence than the interest of controlling votes. The first recorded legislation of importance upon the military affairs of the nation is the act of Congress of the twenty-seventh day of January, 1785, entitled "An Ordinance for ascertaining the Powers and Duties of the Secretary at War.” By this Act the duties of the Secretary are defined; and amongst them is a provision requiring him to visit“ at least once a year, magazines and deposits of public stores, and report the state of them, with proper arrangements, to Congress.” Immediately after the confederation of the States by the adoption of the Constitution, this legislation was superseded by an act of Congress, approved on the seventh day of August, 1789, defining the duties of the department; which was again modified by the fifth Congress, in the act of the thirtieth day of April, 1798: “To establish an Executive Department, to be denominated the Department of the Navy.” Of the efficiency of this department, and its services to the republic, there can be no better testimony than that which has been extorted from history, in the following words: “The United States, from the peace of Independence, in 1783, achieved by war and

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