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Wales, and himself, with some eighty and it was not till September, 1650,

others, were lost. The general that any award was effected by the

opinion was, if we may credit arbitrators appointed by the respective Winthrop, that this calamity was a litigants in the case. “By their award, mark of divine displeasure against such all the eastern part of Long as had opposed or injured God's poor Island, composing the present people of New England,"—so prone county of Suffolk, was assigned to are men to pronounce harsh and un- New England. The boundary between charitable judgments respecting calami- New Haven and New Netherland was ties which it pleases God to send upon to begin at Greenwich Bay, to run individuals.

northerly twenty miles into the counOn Stuyvesant's assuming the gov- try, and beyond 'as it shall be agreed, ernment, in May, 1647, the colony was but nowhere to approach the Hudson far from being in a prosperous con

nearer than ten miles. The Dutch redition, as compared with Virginia and tained their fort of Good Hope, with Maryland on the south, and New Eng- the lands appertaining to it; but all land on the north. The former num- the rest of the territory on the river bered some twenty thousand inhabi- was assigned to Connecticut. . Fugitants, and New England about as tives were to be mutually given up. many; while New Netherland had Adventurers from New Haven unhardly three thousand, including the dertook a fresh expedition to the DelaSwedes on the Delaware. Bevers- ware, the question respecting which wyck—the site of the present city of had unfortunately been left unsettled. Albany-was a hamlet of ten houses; Stuyvesant resisted this attempt New Amsterdam was a village of instantly, seized upon the ship, wooden huts, with roofs of straw, and detained the emigrants, and proceeded chimneys of mud and sticks, and a large to build a fort-Fort Casimir-on the proportion of rum-shops, and shops for present site of Newcastle. This enerthe sale of tobacco and beer. On the getic conduct was denounced at New western end of Long Island there were

Haven as a violation of the late treaty, several plantations, but a considerable and fresh troubles sprang up in consepart of the inhabitants were English. quence. It was even contemplated to

The United Colonies of New Eng- attempt the conquest of New Netherland sent to Stuyvesant a congratula- land, especially as at the time war had

tory letter on his arrival, but broken out between Cromwell and the

wound up with numerous com- Dutch, and inasmuch as it was alleged plaints. The old soldier had been that there was a plot between the charged with the settling these dis-Dutch and the Narragansetts to murputes and differences, if possible, and der the entire body of English colohe accordingly undertook with vigor nists. Massachusetts refusing to join to accomplish the difficult task. Matters did not advance rapidly or easily; ., p. 438

Hildreth's History of the United States," vol.



CH. X.)







any such scheme, it came to nought. claiming the territory as within the

The inhabitants of New Amsterdam, limits of that colony, and the having obtained by petition to the au- Dutch stoutly denying the Mary

thorities at home, certain mu- land claim, and insisting upon their nicipal privileges, were desirous right of prior occupancy.

Further of proceeding still further in the path difficulties, too, occurred this of popular liberty. A convention of (1659) with the Indians, whose thirst two delegates from each village as for blood was stimulated by selling or sembled, and were disposed to demand giving to them the poisonous "firefor the people a share in legislation water.” Murders on their part were and the appointment of magistrates. followed by retaliatory steps on the Sturdy old Stuyvesant dissolved the part of the Dutch, and many lives were

convention, rejected their de- lost in consequence. A peace was

mand as absurd and presump- made the next year ; but in 1663, the tuous, and gave them to understand savages, who had been waiting an opthat he needed no help from the igno- portunity to revenge the sending away ble crowd to sustain his authority, or some Indians by Stuyvesant to the aid him in the discharge of his duties. West Indies, attacked the settlers at His conduct and bearing were highly Esopus with unpitying fury. Late in approved by the Company in Holland. that year the Indians were nearly all

The Swedes by a stratagem, got pos- subdued, and tranquillity was restored session of Fort Casimir; but as Sweden for the time.

no longer held the rank of a The dispute with Maryland was

formidable power, the Company vexatious and troublesome, but, comdirected Stuyvesant to subdue the paratively, was of small moment: it Swedes and take possession of the South was the restless New England spirit Bay and River. The year following, the which seemed destined to be the plague

Director embarked for the Dela- of Stuyvesant's life. Connecticut was

ware with a force of six hun- eager in the pursuit of territory, and dred men, and without difficulty ac- on obtaining a royal charter, complished his object, so that New began to press a claim to Long Sweden became again a part of New Island, Westchester, and in fact, all the Netherland.

land east of the Hudson. Stuyvesant The affairs of New Netherland went to Boston, and sent agents to seemed to be now decidedly on the Hartford : the New Englanders spoke

improvement. Amicable rela- fairly, but their actions still excited the

tions were kept up with Vir- suspicions of the old soldier; and deginia, and a mutually profitable trade spite his contempt for popular assemwas carried on. With Maryland, how- blies, he was fain to ask the advice ever, there was a dispute as to the oc- of the people in the emergencupancy of the western bank of the cy. Unfortunately the Assembly Delaware, the governor of Maryland could not yield him any assistance: the







days of New Netherland were num- he sent, in concert with the deputies, bered.

to request of the English commander The English claim, such as it was, to the reason of his hostile appearance. the territory occupied by the Dutch, it Nichols replied by asserting the claims will be remembered, had never been of England, and demanding an immegiven up; it was now determined to diate surrender of New Amsterdam on enforce that claim by something more condition that the lives, liberties, and cogent than words.* The Duke of property of the inhabitants should be York had bought up the claims of respected. Stuyvesant retorted by a

Lord Stirling, under grants spirited protest, detailing the manner

which he had received from the in which the Dutch had obtained a extinct Council of New England; and lawful possession of the country, affectin March, 1664, he had received from ing to doubt whether, “if his Majesty his brother, Charles II., a charter for a

of Great Britain were well informed large and valuable tract between the of such passages, he would not be too Connecticut and the Delaware princi- judicious to grant such an order” as pally, and swallowing up entirely New that by which he was summoned, espeNetherland. NEW YORK was the name cially in a time of profound peace; and bestowed upon this new province. reminding the commissioners, that it

Prompt measures were adopted. was “a very considerable thing to afThree ships, with six hundred soldiers, front so mighty a state as Holland, alhaving on board Colonel Richard Nich- though it were not against an ally and ols, Colonel George Cartwright, Sir Rob- confederate.” Neither argument nor ert Carr, and Samuel Maverick as com- threats produced, however, any effect missioners, were dispatched in August, upon the English commander, who re1664, to seize upon New Netherland fused to protract the negotiation, and for the Duke of York. Rumors of their threatened an immediate attack updesign had indeed reached that city, on the city. Mortifying as it was to but no effectual defence had been, or in- an old soldier to surrender without a deed could be, attempted by the Dutch. struggle, Stuyvesant was compelled to Stuyvesant endeavored to awaken the submit to circumstances; the majority spirit of the inhabitants to a gallant de- of the inhabitants were unwilling to fence, by recalling to them the recent

run the risk of an assault to which they heroic struggle of the fatherland against could not hope to offer any effectual the Spaniards, but he met but with a opposition, in defence of a government feeble response. Determined at least with which they were discontented, and to put a bold front upon the matter, against another which many among

them were secretly disposed to wel* Chalmers, who writes with strong English feel

A liberal capitulation was aring and prejudices, goes so far as to state that the ranged; the rights and privileges of

the inhabitants were guaranteed; and volt of the American Colonies," vol. i., p. 116.

New Amsterdam quietly passed into


settlement of New Netherland was in violation of the law of nations! See his Introduction to the Re

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CH. X.]




the possession of the bold invaders. pecting ally was no less a breach of

A few days after, Fort Orange, on private justice than of public faith. the Hudson, capitulated, and the name It may, indeed, be affirmed, that among

Albany was bestowed upon it. all the acts of selfish perfidy which

A treaty was here concluded royal ingratitude conceived and exewith the chiefs of the Five Nations, - cuted, there have been few more charwhose hostilities had occasioned so acteristic, and none more base. much distress to the Dutch, Sir

The emigrants who first Robert Carr meanwhile entered the explored the coasts and reclaimed the Delaware, and plundering and ill using soil of New Netherland, and bore the the Dutch, soon reduced them to sub- flag of Holland to the wigwams of the mission. Thus it was that, by a claim Iroquois, were generally bluff

, plainfirmly persisted in, and enforced with spoken, earnest, yet unpresumptuous out the shedding of a single drop of men, who spontaneously left their nablood, New Netherland became an in- tive land to better their condition, and tegral part of the growing and im- bind another province to the United portant colonial empire of England. Netherlands. They brought over with The Dutch inhabitants readily acqui- them the liberal ideas, and honest maxesced in the change of rulers, and even ims, and homely virtues of their counthe sturdy Governor Stuyvesant, at- | try.

They came with no tached to the country, spent the re- loud-sounding pretensions to grandeur mainder of his life in New York. in purpose, eminence in holiness, or

It seems but fair, at this point in the superiority in character. They were history of New York, to quote the more accustomed to do than to boast; words of Mr. Brodhead, who claims nor have their descendants been amthat the Dutch have hardly received | bitious to invite and appropriate excesjustice at the hands of American his- sive praise for the services their ancestorians. “The reduction of New NE-tors rendered in extending the limits THERLAND was now accomplished. All of Christendom, and in stamping upon that could be further done was to America its distinguishing features of change its name; and, to glorify one freedom in religion, and liberality in of the most bigotted princes in Eng- political faith. lish history, the royal province was or- Much of what has been written of dered to be called NEW YORK.

American history has been written by The flag of England was at length tri. those who, from habit or prejudice, umphantly displayed, where, for half a have been inclined to magnify the influcentury, that of Holland had rightfully ence, and extol the merit of the Anglowaved ; and, from Virginia to Canada Saxon race, at the expense of every the King of Great Britain was acknow- other element which has assisted to ledged as sovereign.

This form the national greatness. In no treacherous and violent seizure of the particular has this been more remarkterritory and possessions of an unsus- | able than in the unjust view which has

Vol. I.--14


so often been taken of the founders of which finally broke out into open in: New York. Holland has long been a surrection. The Assembly convened at theme for the ridicule of British writers; Elizabethtown, deposed Philip Carteret, and even in this country, the character who was compelled to fly, and elected and manners of the Dutch have been James Carteret in his place. The latter made the srıbjects of an unworthy de- |-had been active in encouraging the agipreciation, caused, perhaps, in some in- tation and insurrection. stances, by too ready an imitation of One of the earliest measures adopted those provincial chroniclers who could by the Duke of York, in behalf of the see little good in their 'noxious neigh- new State called by his name, was the bors' of New Netherland."**

passing a code embodying many valuNew Jersey was established at this able privileges and customs derived from date. The country between the Hud- local experience, and adapted to the son and the Delaware had been con- wants of the colonists, trial by jury

veyed by the Duke of York to being among them. That democratic

Lord Berkeley and Sir George spirit, however, which had led the inCarteret. This latter had been gov- habitants of the colony to rebėl against ernor of the Island of Jersey during the severe government of Stuyvesant, the civil war, and thus the name of the and to welcome the English rule as pronew province was derived. As this ex- mising a more liberal policy, dissatisfied tensive tract was thinly inhabited, the and disappointed with these concessions policy of the proprietaries led them alone, vented itself in angry and bitter to offer the most favorable terms to remonstrances against a system no less settlers. Absolute freedom of wor- despotic than the former.

The mership, and a colonial Assembly, having chants felt themselves oppressed by the sole power of taxation, and a share fresh duties, which, to swell the coffers in the legislation of the province, were

of the Duke of York, were levied upon among the principal inducements. Many their imports and exports. Thus at the were attracted to New Jersey, and it moment when, war having been dewas thought to be almost a paradise, on clared between England and Holland, account of the liberality of its institu- in 1673, through the artifices of Louis tions and the beauty of the climate. XIV., a Dutch fleet suddenly appeared

Philip Carteret had been appointed before the city, a general disaffection governor, much to the discontent of prevailed amongst the citizens, and ColNichols, who protested in vain against onel Manning, who, in the absence of this encroachment upon his jurisdiction. the governor, Lovelace, held possession

Carteret's attempt to collect of the fort with a small body of Eng

the quit-rents for the proprie- lish soldiers, surrendered without retaries in 1670, caused much discontent, sistance. He was afterwards adjudged

guilty by a court martial of cowardice * Brodhead's “ History of the State of New York, and treachery. For awhile New York

again became a Dutch city, and was


First Period, p. 745_750.

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