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pretation be more rational than what has gone before, or that conclusion more logical, are questions whose decision must rest with my readers. If, however, my book has any peculiarity, it is its method. It is a comparative study. It is

an attempt to apply the method, which has been found so productive in the domain of Natural Science, to Political Science and Jurisprudence. I do not claim to be the first author who has made this attempt. It is the method chiefly followed by the German publicists. In the French, English, and American literatures, it is, on the other hand, relatively Boutmy, Bryce, Dicey, Moses, and Wilson have, indeed, already broken the ground, but the field is capable of a much wider, and also a more minute, cultivation.

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It is here that I have chosen to lay out my work, and I trust it will be found that some slight advance has been made in the development of the comparative method in the treatment of this domain of knowledge.

My most grateful acknowledgment for aid in the preparation of this work is due to my friend and colleague, Prof. Dr. Munroe Smith, who, in the midst of other arduous duties, has read the proof sheets of the entire text, and has made many most invaluable criticisms and suggestions upon it, which, almost without exception, have been accepted and incorporated in the work. My most sincere thanks are also due to my friend and former pupil, Dr. Robert Weil, who has, with great care and fidelity, verified all the references, and prepared the table of contents, the table of cases, and the index. His kindly aid has greatly lightened my labors, and his exactness has preserved me against many an error.

WINOOSKI HIGHLANDS, MONTPELIER, VT.,

August, 1890.

JOHN W. BURGESS.

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Principles of political psychology. The nations of modern Europe and the
United States of America are sprung from the Greek, Latin, Celtic,
Teutonic and Slavonic races.

1. Political psychology of the Greek and Slav: community sovereignty;
they must be organized politically by foreign peoples

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2. Of the Celt: Clanship their highest political organization; they also
must be organized from without

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3. Of the Latin: the Universal Empire their great political institution;
characteristics of the Universal Empire

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BOOK II. THE STATE.

CHAPTER I. THE IDEA AND THE CONCEPTION OF THE

STATE.

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II. Peculiar characteristics of the state

1. All-comprehensiveness; 2. Exclusiveness; 3. Permanence; 4. Sov-

ereignty.

Characteristics of sovereignty: (a) It is unlimited

(b) It is the source and support of individual liberty
Exemplification of this fact in history

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The principle of the sovereignty of the state is opposed because publicists
do not sufficiently distinguish state from government

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CHAPTER II. THE ORIGIN OF THE STATE.

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Bluntschli confounds state and government: the Compound State (Zusam-
mengesetzte Statsform)

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Social conditions which precede and make possible the democratic state

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Proposition of von Holtzendorff in Principien der Politik: the three ends

of the state

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But the state must from time to time re-adjust the relation of government to
liberty

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The doctrine of natural rights; liberty does not exist outside of state organ-
ization.

Recapitulation of the ends of the state in historical order: government, lib-
erty, the development of national genius, world civilization.

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