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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
A FURTHER ACCOUNT OF THE ARCTIC REGIONS, AND OF THE EXPEDITIONS UNDERTAKEN FOR THE DISCOVERY OF A NORTH-WEST PASSAGE FROM
THE ATLANTIC TO THE PACIFIC.
CAPTAIN FRANKLIN'S FIRST JOURNEY.
ensuing spring. A conversation, however, with the WHEN CAPTAIN PARRY was despatched on his first at- gentlemen who had the charge of the establishment, was tempt to explore the Polar Sea, with a view to the discovery sufficient to assure Captain Franklin of the necessity of of a passage into the Pacific Ocean, it was considered, not his proceeding, during the winter, into the Athabasca only that the expedition might be assisted in that object, department, in order that he might be enabled to secure but also, that material advantage might be rendered to guides, hunters, and interpreters, and obtain information geographical science, by the advance of a party over land as to the countries lying to the north of the great Slave to the shores of the Polar Sea, following the route by Lake, before the season for active operations had begun. which Hearne had reached it in 1772. Accordingly, on the Accordingly, on the 18th of January, 1820, he departed recommendation of the Lords of the Admiralty, Lieu. for Fort Chepewyan, accompanied by Mr. Back and the tenant (now Sir John) Franklin was appointed by Earl seaman Hepburn; leaving Dr. Richardson and Mr. Hood Bathurst, the then Secretary of State for the Colonies, to at Cuộberland House, to devote the remainder of the the command of a party for this service, consisting of winter to scientific pursuits, with the intention that they Doctor John Richardson, a naval surgeon, well skilled in should follow with the baggage early in the spring, as soon natural history; Messrs. Hood and Back, two admiralty as the navigation was open. The other seaman, Wilks, midshipmen; and two English seamen, named Hepburn having proved to be quite unequal to the fatigue of the and Wilks.
journey, was discharged, and sent home by the next ship. This party left Gravesend on the 23rd of May, 1819, in The mode of winter-travelling practised in these counthe Hudson's Bay Company's ship, Prince of Wales; and tries is twofold,—by conveyance in dog-sledges, or by on the 30th of August reached York Factory, the prin- walking in snow-shoes. The sledge is slight, and simple cipal depôt of the Huđson's Bay Company. Here they in its construction, consisting merely of two or three thin received every possible assistance from the servants boards, which curve upwards in front, and are fastened of the Company, who used the utmost endeavours to together by pieces of wood running across their upper forward their progress, and readily instructed them as to side. Its length is eight or ten feet, but the breadth the different modes of travelling which it might be inconsiderable; and the edges have a lacing attached to advisable to adopt. On the 9th of September, the party them, which serves to secure the lading. When used by commenced their river journey into the interior, and on the trader for his personal conveyance, it assumes a more the 22nd of October, reached Cumberland House, having finished character and appearance, under the name of travelled a distance of 690 miles. The winter was now cariole. A covering of leather is then fixed so as to beginning to set in; and the effect of a few days' frost protect the lower part of the body; and the whole machine convincing them of the impracticability of a further advance is painted and ornamented according to the taste of the that season, they resolved to remain at this post until the proprietor. VOL. III.
A snow-shoe is made of two light bars of wood,.con- of Green Stockings, (as the young lady was called from nected by several transverse bars, the spaces between her dress,) with that of her father, forms one of the plates which are filled with a fine netting of leathern thongs. which illustrate Captain Franklin's narrative. To this the foot is attached by straps passing round the It was not until the 14th of June, 1821, that the expeheel, but only fixing the toes, so as to allow the heel to rise dition was able to leave Fort Enterprise. Almost a year after each step. To those who are unaccustomed to the had now elapsed, since they had quitted Fort Providence, use of these implements, the miseries occasioned by and by this time their provisions were greatly reduced. walking in them are said to be dreadful in the extreme. As they proceeded down the Coppermine, however, the Galled feet and swelled ankles, and a track marked with grassy plains on its banks afforded them an abundant blood, are the invariable accompaniments of the traveller's supply of game. Deer and musk-oxen were also found first trial; but the acuteness of his sufferings is gradually in large herds, followed, as usual, by great numbers of diminished, and soon ceases altogether.
bears and wolves. These last are gregarious animals, and More than two months had elapsed before Captain so sagacious as rarely to be caught in any trap. The straFranklin reached Fort Chepewyan, the distance being 857 tagem which they practise against the poor deer is as miles from Cumberland House. The whole of this journey curious as it is successful, on plains bounded by precipitous lay through an inhospitable region, barren and almost cliffs.--"Whilst the deer,” says Dr. Richardson, "are quietly uninhabited. The party travelled by day, and rested at grazing, the wolves assemble in great numbers, and, formnight. Their mode of encampment was simple, and ing a crescent, creep slowly towards the herd, so as not to exposed them sufficiently to the severity of the weather. alarm them much at first; but, when they perceive that It consisted merely in clearing away the snow from the they have fairly hemmed in the unsuspecting creatures, ground, and covering the space with pine-branches, over and cut off their retreat across the plain, they move more which the party spread their blankets and coats. A store quickly, and with hideous yells terrify their prey, and urge of fuel was collected for the night, and the fire then them to flight by the only open way, which is that towards kindled; the sledges were unstowed, the dogs unharnessed, the precipice, appearing to know, that when the herd is and the provisions hung upon the trees out of the reach once at full speed it is easily driven over the cliff, the rearof these voracious animals." Supper was then cooked, and most urging on those that are before; the wolves then the weary travellers, ranging themselves round the fire descend at their leisure and feast on the mangled carcasses." with their feet towards it, at length slept in warmth and These voracious animals were disposed to practise this comfort, without any other canopy than the heavens. The maneuvre one evening, upon Dr. Richardson, as he was engraving in page 252, from Captain Franklin's Narrative, sitting musing on the summit of a precipice, overlooking will convey a correct notion of the manner of making this the Coppermine River. Hearing a slight noise behind resting-place.
him, he turned round, and saw nine white wolves apOn the arrival of spring, Dr. Richardson and Mr. Hood proaching in the form of a crescent; aware of their rejoined their companions at Fort Chepewyan; and active intentions, the Doctor got up and walked boldly towards preparations were now made for the advance of the expe-them, when they immediately, made an openag and let dition. A party of Indians were procured, to serve as him pass. We have given a representation of one of the guides and hunters, until they reached the mouth of the dusky variety of this animal (Lupus nubilus ) in page 253. Coppermine River, and undertook to join them at a sub- On the 14th of July, our travellers obtained their first sequent stage, where they were also to be met by a Mr. view of the sea ; and when they reached the mouth of the Wentzel, a clerk of the North West Company, who offered Coppermine, the Indians quitted them. Mr. Wentzel himself as a medium of communication with those people, also turned back, having previously received positive and among whom he had lived long and familiarly. Sixteen repeated injunctions from Captain Franklin, to lay up a Canadian voyagers were also engaged to accompany them large store of provisions at Fort Enterprise, and leave a throughout the whole journey; and with these our five letter there informing liim where he might expect to fall countrymen set out, on the 18th of July, for Fort Pro- in with the hunters when he returned. On the 21st, the vidence, which they reached on the 29th. Here they were rest of the party embarked upon the open Polar Sea, in joined by Mr. Wentzel and the Indians, and, on the 2nd two frail canoes of birch-bark, with provisions for only of August, finally departed, hoping to reach the mouth of Afteen days. With this slight equipment, they succeeded, the Coppermine, before the season should expire. À however, in tracing the northern coast of America for variety of impediments, however, so obstructed them, that upwards of 550 miles to the eastward from the Coppermine they were far distant from that point, when they found it River. necessary to form their winter-establishment. The spot The extreme point of their progress in that direction, selected for this purpose, was reached on the 19th, and a was Point Turnagain, in latitude 68° 18' 50", and lonhouse was there built, which was afterwards named Fort gitude 109° 25' West. This they reached on the 16th of Enterprise. In the mean while, an excursion was made August, when the approach of winter obliged them to by the officers to the head of the Coppermine River, at retrace their course back again. Point Lake, about sixty miles to the northward, in order Before they had returned as far as the spot where the to satisfy themselves of its size and position.
river, which they had named after Mr. Hood, empties The winter was passed in dull monotony; the officers itself into the sea, their provisions were entirely consumed. employed themselves in writing out their journals, con- They well knew, from experience, that the coast along structing the charts, and other similar occupations; and which their track lay, would offer but very scanty means of the men were chiefly engaged in seeking firewood. The recruiting their exhausted supply, and that even those provisions, however, of the party, were greatly reduced, means would gradually lessen, as the winter advanced. and their ammunition nearly expended, even at this early Accordingly, Captain Franklin resolved to alter bis intended period. To procure a further supply, and hasten the route, and proceeding up Hood's River, to strike across transport of the stores expected from Cumberland House, the interior, and make directly for Fort Enterprise. They Mr. Back proceeded to Fort Chepewyan; and returned had, however, scarcely advanced far up that stream, when after an absence of nearly five months, during which he they were stopped by finding it pour its whole body over had travelled 1104 miles in snow-shoes, with no other a ledge of rock, in a splendid fall 250 feet in height* covering in the woods on the wintry nights, than a blanket On the further side, the stream decreased so much, that and deer-skin. A part of this extraordinary journey lay they were obliged to abandon its navigation, and pursue across the Great Slave Lake; and the mode of travelling their journey on foot. For this purpose, the canoes were practised there is represented in the engraving at p. 249. rendered more portable, their assistance being still needed
During his absence, a large party of the Copper Indians to carry the party across the rivers and lakes which they arrived at Fort Enterprise, and the impression which their expected to meet with ; and every part of the baggage, not kindness and attention produced was favourable. Captain absolutely wanted, was left behind. Franklin relates an amusing incident, which strongly They set off on the 31st of August, and soon afterwards, marks their simplicity. An old guide had a daughter, were surprised and alarmed by a heavy fall of snov. who was considered by her tribe to be a great beauty, With this, their sufferings began; they had now nothing insomuch that, although under sixteen years of age, she to eat, and being destitute of the means of making a fire, had already belonged successively to two husbands. Mr. remained two whole days in bed. When they resumed Hood drew an accurate portrait of her, much to the their march, they experienced all the bitter miseries of annoyance of her mother, who was afraid, she said, that ner daughter's likeness would induce the great chief, who
* Our readers will find a view and descnption of this magnibes resided in England, to send for the original. This portrait | the name of the Wilberforce Falls.
cascade, in the Saturday Magazine, No. 8, (Vol. I, page 57,) od reached the Fort, in an utterly exhausted state, having On the 1st of October, the wind was still unfavourablo tasted no food for five days, with the single exception of for crossing on the raft; and St. Germain, one of the one meal of tripe de roche. Their feelings may more interpreters, now proposed to make a canoe of the frag- easily be conceived than described, when, on entering, ments of painted canvass in which they wrapped up their instead of finding food and succour, and every means of bedding. During their detention, in the mean while, their calm repose and rest for their wearied bodies, they beheld sufferings from want of provisions were acute in the ex- a perfectly desolate habitation !" "There was no deposit treme. On the afternoon of the 1st, a small quantity of of provisions, no trace of the Indians, no letter from Mr. tripe de roche was gathered; and one of the hunters Wentzel, to point out where they might be found." When brought in the antlers and back-bone of a deer, which had they had somewhat recovered from the first shock of so been killed in the summer. “ The wolves and birds of dreadful a disappointment, they observed a note in the prey," says Captain Franklin, “had picked them clean, hand-writing of Mr. Back, stating that he had reached but there still remained a quantity of spinal marrow the house two days before, and that he had gone in search which they had not been able to extract. This; although of the Indians in a direction where one of the guides putrid, was esteemed a valuable prize, and the spine being thought it likely they would be, and that he would send divided into portions, was distributed equally. After eating relief the instant he met them. the marrow, which was so acrid as to excoriate the lips, we Four days afterwards, a message arrived from Mr. Back, rendered the bones friable by burning, and ate them also." | with the unwelcome tidings, that he had as yet been unThe weather became very stormy, and the despair of the successful. Captain Franklin now made a last effort, and Canadians was such, that they refused to gather tripe de collecting some old shoes, scraps of leather, and skins with roche, choosing rather to go entirely without food, than the hair singed off, set out himself in quest of the Indians; make the slightest exertion to procure it. It is pleasing but his strength was unequal to the task, and he returned to observe the contrast which the behaviour of the English again to the house of misery and desolation, on the folseaman, John Hepburn, presented to this despondency. lowing day. Nearly three long and gloomy weeks were He, "animated by a firm reliance on the beneficence of a passed in this pitiable condition; during which, they Supreme Being, tempered with resignation to his will, was perceived their strength gradually declining every day. indefatigable in his exertions to serve us, and daily col- When once seated, it was only with the greatest difficulty lected all the tripe de roche that was used in the oflicers' they could rise; and they had frequently to lift each other. mess." Captain Franklin, himself, was so exhausted, as Their only food was the bones and skins of deer, that had to be incapable of the most ordinary labour. He attempted been killed during their residence the preceding winter. to walk three-quarters of a mile, to hasten the operations. These sorry substitutes for wholesome nourishment, had of St. Germain; but after a vain struggle of three hours, been neglected and cast away in the season of plenty, but during which he was much shaken by the numerous falls were now sought for with the utmost eagerness of which he received, he was compelled to return. Mr. Hood had their debilitated frames were capable. The bones were become a perfect shadow, from the severe bowel-complaint pounded and boiled down into an acrid mess, which they which the tripe de roche invariably gave him. Mr Back | persuaded themselves to call soup, until the insides of their
travelling through deep snow, in cold and boisterous I could only walk with the support of a stick, and Dr. Richweather, and over a barren country, which afforded scarcely ardson, to his weakness, added lameness. The sensation a shrub for fuel, and for food only a species of lichen called of hunger was no longer felt by any of them, yet strange tripe de roche,-an unpalatable werd, as scanty as it was to say, they were scarcely able to converse upon any other nauseous. The despair and discontent of the Canadians subject than the pleasures of eating. became great, as the difficulties of the journey increased; and At lengtli, on the 4th of October, the canoe was finished, their negligence, or more probably their wilfulness, caused but it was capable of holding only one person. St. Gerthe destruction of the two canoes which they carrierl. main embarked the first, amilst the anxious prayers of
At length, on the 26th of September, they reached the the whole party assembled on the beach, for his success. banks of the Coppermine River, and the Canadians now He fortunately reached the opposite shore, and the canoe began to consider their misfortunes at an end; but the being then drawn back, another person was transported. river was yet to be passed, before they could approach the In this inanner they all were conveyed over without any place of their destination, and their fatal rasliness had serious accident; and they were now only 40 miles disdestroyed their only means of crossing it. An immediate tant from Fort Enterprise,—the spot, where, according to search was made for pines to construct a raft, but none were the arrangement with Mr. Wentzel, it had been agreed to be found. Willows were more plentiful, and a number that a depôt of provisions should be laid up, and in the were gathered and bound into faggots, so as to form a sort weighbourhood of which, à band of Indians should be of float. But this, from the wood being green, had very stationed. But the severity of the weather, the wretched little buoyancy, and was rendered utterly useless by the weakness of the whole party, and the total absence of all want of oars, or poles, to propel it against an unfavourable means of recruiting their exhausted strength, rendered a wind. Under these circuinstances, there seemed nothing journey of even this short extent, a task almost utterly left for them, but to remain where they were, and starve. beyond their powers. Mr. Back was therefore sent forDr. Richardson, however, nobly undertook to make a last warri with three of the men, to search for the Indians, and effort for the relief of the suffering party, by proposing to send relief to his starving companions, wlio were to follow swim across the river, (whose breadth was about 130 more leisurely: On the day succeeding his departure, they yards,) with a line attached to his body, and then haul the again resumed their journey; but as they advanced, those raft after. “He launched into the stream," says Captain who were weaker than the rest, and on wliom their sole Franklin, “ with a line round his middle; but when he and scanty sourre of sustenance, (lebility, it should be,) had got a short distance from the bank, his arms became the tripe de roche, producerl the most distressing effects, benumbed with cold, and he lost the power of moving began to fail altogether. On the second day, "previous them; still he persevered, and, turning on his back, had to setting out, the whole party ate the remains of their nearly gained the opposite bank, when his legs also became old shoes, and whatever scraps of leather they had, to powerless, and, to our infinite alarm, we beheld him sink strengtlien their stomachs for the day's journey." In the We instantly hauled upon the line, and he came again to middle of the march, however, two men dropped behind, the stirface, and was gradually drawn ashore in an almost utterly unable to proceed, and perished. Dr. Richardson, lifeless state. Being rolled up in blankets, he was placed and Mr. If oorl now proposed, that they themselves should before a good fire of willows, and, fortunately, was just able halt at the first place which offered a supply of tripe de to speak sufficiently to give some slight directions respect roche and firewood, and there remain, while the rest of the ing the manner of treating him. He recovered strength party proceeded, and sent back assistance. The plan gradually, and, by the blessing of God, was enabled, in was adopted; and those two gentlemen remained, with the course of a few hours, to converse, and by the evening Hepburn, who volunteered to stop behind also. The was sufficiently recovered to remove into the tent. We separation took place on the 7th of October, while they then regretted to learn, that the skin of his whole left side were yet 24 miles from Fort Enterprise. Captain Franklin was deprived of feeling, in consequence of exposure to too continued his journey with the remainder of the party, great heat. He did not perfectly recover the sensation of consisting of eiyht persons ; but before three days had that side until the following summer. I cannot describe elapsed, four of them, including one named Michel, an what every one felt at beholding the skeleton which the Iroquois, failed in their strength, and returned to join Dr. Doctor's debilitated frame exhibited. When he stripped, Richardson and Mr. Hood. the Canadians simultaneously exclaimed, Ah que nous On the evening of the 11th, the Captain, with the others, sommes maigres !"
MANNER OF MAKINO A RESTING-PLACE ON A WINTER'S sont. mouths became so sore from eating it, that they were com- engaged in an unsuccessful hunt after deer, yet that he pelled to relinquish its use. The skins, they at first fried, had found a wolf which had been killed by the stroke of a but afterwards boiled, finding this to be the more palatable deer's horn; and had brought a part of it. "We implicitly mode of dressing them.
believed this story then," says Dr. Richardson, “but afterAt length, on the evening of the 29th, whilst they were wards became convinced, from circumstances, the detail of seated round the fire, conversing on the subject of the which may be spared, that it must have been a portion of anticipated relief, one of the hunters, with a sudden inter- the body of Belanger or Perrault,” two of the unfortunate ruption, joyfully exclaimed " Ah! le monde !" thinking men who had turned back, and one or both of whom, it that he heard the Indians in the other room. Immedi- was strongly suspected, had been murdered by this Iroquois. ately afterwards, Dr. Richardson and Hepburn entered, The conduct of this man now became daily more gloomy each carrying his bundle ; but they were alone-none of and alarming; he absented himself from the party, refused their companions were with them. "Captain Franklin was either to hunt or to fetch wood, and frequently threatened instantly seized with fearful apprehensions respecting his to leave them. Poor Hood was rapidly fading; his strength friend Hood, which were immediately confirmed by the was nearly gone; and the acute pain which the tripe de Doctor's melancholy communication, that both that gentle- roche invariably caused,' whenever he ate it, deprived himn man and Michel were dead: the details were, however, of even this their last resource against starvation. They spared for the present. “ We were all shocked,” says avoided speaking upon the sorrowful subject of their hope Captain Franklin, “ at beholding the emaciated countc- less condition; their minds had decayed with the strength nances of the Doctor and Hepburn, as they strongly evi- of their bodies, and they could no longer bear to contemdenced their extremely debilitated state. The alteration plate the horrors that surrounded them. “ Still,” says in our appearance was equally distressing to them, for since Dr. Richardson, “ we were calm, and resigned to our fate; the swellings had subsided, we were little more than skin not a murmur escaped us, and we were punctual and fer and bone. The Doctor particularly remarked the sepul- vent in our addresses to the Supreme Being." chral tone of our voices, which he requested us to make But an event soon occurred, which effectually roused more cheerful, if possible, unconscious that his own partook them, and caused a sudden exertion of their remaining of the same key.'
powers. Michel was daily becoming more sulky, and his At th moment, Hepburn had succeeded in shooting a unwillingness to assist the others at last amounted to partridge, which was brought to the house." The Doctor positive refusal. Mr. Hood attempted to remonstrate tore out the feathers, and having held it to the fire a few with him, but only excited his anger. “It is no use hunting; minutes, divided it into seven portions. Each piece was there are no animals, you had better kill and eat me, ravenously devoured by my companions, as it was the was one of the answers which he returned. Dr. Richardson first morsel of flesh any of us had tasted for thirty-one and Mr. Hood had already promised that if he would days, unless, indeed, the small grisly particles which we hunt for four days diligently, they would then allow him found occasionally adhering to the pounded bones may be to proceed to Fort Enterprise with Hepburn, who should termed flesh."
be furnished with a letter for Captain Franklin, a compass, Dr. Richardson now proceeded to give an account of and instructions for performing the journey. The 21st what had befallen him and his party, since the separation; was the day appointed for the departure. On the 20th, and melancholy indeed was the tale which he had to relate. they again urged him to go a hunting, that he might, if On the first two days, they had nothing whatever to eat; possible, leave them some provisions, before quitting them, on the evening of the third, Michel arrived, and brought but he showed great unwillingness to go out, and lingered with him a hare and a partridge, which enabled them to about the fire, under the pretence of cleaning his gun
. break their long fast. This individual
, it will be recollected, After the morning-service had been read, Dr. Richardson was one of the four who had turned back, and left Captain went out to gather tripe de roche, Hepburn was cm. Franklin, for the purpose of rejoining Dr. Richardson and ployed in endeavouring to provide them a store of fuel, preMr. Hood. But he alone reached them; the other three vious to his departure; and Mr. Hood was left sitting at were never heard of more. On the 11th, Michel was the fire-side before the tent, arguing with Michel. absent when he returned he stated that he had been " A short time after I went out," savs Dr. Richardson
" I heard the report of a gun, and about ten minutes after- | however, as I was thoroughly convinced of the necessity wards Hepburn called to me, in a voice of great alarm, to of such a dreadful act, to take the whole responsibility come directly. When I arrived, I found poor Hood lying upon myself; and immediately upon Michel's coming up, lifeless at the fire-side, a ball having apparently entered I put an end to his life, by shooting him through the head his forehead. I was at first horror-struck with the idea with a pistol." that, in a fit of despondency, he had hurried himself into After the death of Michel, the two survivors continued the presence of his Almighty Judge, by an act of his own their march towards the Fort ; and six wretched and weary hand; but the conduct of Michel soon gave rise to other days did they drag along their famished bodies, before they thoughts, and excited suspicions, which were confirmed, could traverse the short space that separated them from when, upon examining the body, I discovered that the shot that spot. At length, on the evening of the 29th, they had entered the back part of the head, and passed out at arrived in sight of it; “ and it is impossible," says Dr. the forehead, and that the muzzle of the gun had been Richardson, “ to describe onr sensations, when, on attainapplied so close as to set fire to the night-cap behind.";— ing the eminence that overlooks it, we beheld the smoke “Bickersteth's Scripture Help was lying open beside the issuing from one of the chimneys." body, as if it had fallen from his hand, and it is probable Such was the tragical story which Dr. Richardson had that he was reading it at the instant of his death." to tell, on rejoining his unhappy partners in misery. But Michel was immediately questioned as to the manner his sufferings were not at an end: he had, indeed, reached of the occurrence, but his answers were unsatisfactory the Fort, but only to find how fruitless were all the hopes in the extreme. He was still the strongest and the of relief which he had so securely built upon that event. best armed of the three survivors, and Dr. Richardson The party now assembled, consisted of six persons; our dared not, therefore, give open vent to his suspicions; three countrymen, and three Canadians. Scarcely two but the repeated avowals of the Iroquois, that he was days had elapsed, when their number was reduced to four, innocent, and his frequent protestations that he was by the death of two of the Canadians: and before the lapse incapable of committing such an act, too clearly betrayed of a week, the remainder were in such a state that they a secret consciousness of guilt. The body was removed could not have survived eight-and-forty hours longer: prointo a clump of willows behind the tent, and when the videntially, however, on the 7th of November, the longparty had returned to the fire, the funeral service was read expected aid arrived, by the hands of three Indians, whom in addition to the evening prayers.
Mr. Back had sent with all possible expedition, as soon as They now determined to remain no longer where they he had reached their encampment. Dr. Richardson and were, but to proceed directly to the fort. A portion of the Hepburn had gone out to cut wood, leaving Captain Frankbuffalo robe which had belonged to Mr. Hood afforded them lin occupied in endeavouring to dispel the gloomy apprean acceptable meal of boiled skin, for the relief of their hensions of approaching death which disquieted the only present necessities; and the remainder supplied them with Canadian who was now left. They had hardly begun their scanty morsels during the journey which followed. As labour, when they were amazed at hearing the report of a they advanced, the conduct of Michel became more alarm- musket. They could scarcely believe that there was really ing and outrageous than ever; his ill-nature vented itself any one near, until they heard a shout, and immediately in mutterings of obscure hints and threats; and the inso- espied three Indians close to the house. “ Adam and I," lent tone of superiority which he now assumed, when says Captain Franklin, “ heard the latter noise, and I was addressing Dr. Richardson, plainly showed that he con- fearful that a part of the house had fallen upon one of my sidered both that gentleman and Hepburn to be within his companions, a disaster which had, in fact, been thought power. The gloomy conviction now forced itself on their not unlikely. My alarm was only momentary: Dr. Richminds, that he would attempt to destroy them, on the first ardson came in to communicate the joyful intelligence that opportunity that offered. That he had hitherto abstained relief had arrived. He and myself immediately addressed from putting his murderous schemes into execution, was to thanksgiving to the Throne of Mercy for this deliverance, be attributed to a natural regard for his own safety, which but poor Adam was in so low a state, that he could scarcely taught him that to despatch his intended victims, while he comprehend the information." yet needed their assistance in guiding him to a place of We have now little to add respecting the further relief, was but to ensure his own destruction. Proceeding proceedings of the expedition. After a sufficient stay at on their journey, they came, in the afternoon, to a rock, on Fort Enterprise, to enable them to recover, in some which there was some trupe de roche; here Michel halted, degree, their strength, the party proceeded to Fort Proand said that he would gather it, whilst the others went on, vidence, where they remained during the winter. In and that he would soon overtake them. “Hepburn and I," the following, summer, they set out on their return to says Dr. Richardson, “were now left alone, for the first England, which they reached safely in the month of time since Mr. Hood's death, and he acquainted me with October, 1822. several material circumstances which he had observed, of The result of this expedition may be briefly said to conMichel's behaviour, and which confirmed me in the opi- sist in the discovery and examination of a detached slip of nion that there was no safety for us, except in his death, the northern coast of America, extending in length for and he offered to be the instrument of it. I determined, I nearly six and a half degrees of longitude.