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Italy in the Renaissance—The Five Great Powers—The King-

dom of Naples—The Papacy-The Duncy of Milan-
Venice—The Florentine Republic-Wars of Invasion
closed by the Sack of Rome in 1527–Concordat between
Clement VII. and Charles V.- Treaty of Barcelona and
Paix des Dames-Charles lands at Genoa-His Journey
to Bologna-Entrance into Bologna and Reception by
Clement-Mustering of Italian Princes—Franceso Sforza
replaced in the Duchy of Milan- Venetian Embassy-
Italian League signed on Christmas Eve 1529—Florence
alone excluded - The Siege of Florence pressed by the
Prince of Orange-Charles's Coronation as King of Italy
and Holy Roman Emperor-The Significance of this
Ceremony at Bologna-Ceremony in S. Petronio-Settle-
ment of the Duchy of Ferrara-Men of Letters and Arts
at Bologna—The Emperor's Use of the Spanish Habil-
Charles and Clement leave Bologna in March 1530—Rc-
view of the Settlement of Italy affected by Emperor and
Pope-Extinction of Republics-Subsequent Absorption
of Ferrara and Urbino into the Papal States—Savoy be-
comes an Italian Power—Period between Charles's Coro-
nation and the Peace of Cateau Cambresis in 1559-Eco-
nomical and Social Condition of the Italians under Span-
ish Hegemony-The Nation still exists in Separate Com-
munities– Intellectual Conditions—Predominance of Spain
and Rome-Both Cosmopolitan Powers-Leveling down
of the Component Portions of the Nation in a Common
Servitude-The Evils of Spanish Rule

The Counter-Reformation-Its Intellectual and Moral Charac-

ter-Causes of the Gradual Extinction of Renaissance

Energy-Transition from the Renaissance to the Catholic

Revival-New Religious Spirit in Italy-Attitude of Ital-

ians toward German Reformation-Oratory of Divine Love

-Gasparo Contarini and the Moderate Reformers-New

Religious Orders—Paul III.-His early History and Edu-

cation-Political Attitude between France and Spain,

Creation of the Duchy of Parma-Imminence of a General

Council - Review of previous Councils—Paul's Uneasiness

-Opens a Council at Trent in 1542—Protestants virtually

excluded, and Catholic Dogmas confirmed in the first Ses-

sions-Death of Paul in 1549-Julius III.-Paul IV.-

Character and Ruling Passions of G. P. Caraffa-His

Futile Opposition to Spain—Tyranny of His Nephews-

Their Downfall-Paul devotes himself to Church Reform

and the Inquisition- Pius IV.-His Minister Morone-

-Diplomatic Temper of this Pope-His Management of

the Council - Assistance rendered by his Nephew Carlo

Borromeo-Alarming State of Northern Europe - The

Council reopened at Trent in 1562—Subsequent History of

the Council-It closes with a complete Papal Triumph in

1563—Place of Pius IV. in History-Pius V.—The In-

quisitor Pope-Population of Rome-Social Corruption-

Sale of Offices and Justice—Tridentinc Reforms depress

Wealth-Ascetic Purity of Manners becomes fashionable-

Piety-The Catholic Reaction gencrates the Counter-

Reformation-Battle of Lepanto-Gregory XIII.—His Re-

latives—Policy of enriching the Church at Expense of

the Barons—Brigandage in States of the Church-Sixtus

V.-His Stern Justice-Rigid Economy-Great Public

Works—Taxation - The City of Rome assumes its present

form-Nepotism in the Counter-Reformation Period--

Various Estimates of the Wealth accumulated by Papal

Nephews-Rise of Princely Roman Families


Different Spirit in the Holy Office and the Company of Jesus

-Both needed by the Counter-Reformation-Heresy in


the Early Church-First Origins of the Inquisition in 1203

-S. Dominic The Holy Office becomes a Dominican Insti-

tution-Recognized by the Empire-Its earlyOrganization-

The Spanish Inquisition-Founded in 1484-How it differ-

ed from the earlier Apostolical Inquisition-Jews, Moors,

New Christians-Organization and History of the Holy

Office in Spain-Torquemada and his Successors—The

Spanish Inquisition never introduced into Italy-How the

Roman Inquisition organized by Caraffa differed from it

-Autos da fe in Rome-Proscription of suspected Luth-

erans—The Calabrian Waldenses—Protestants at Locarno

and Venice-Digression on the Venetian Holy Office-

Persecution of Free Thought in Literature-Growth of the

Index Librorum Prohibitorum-Sanction given to it by

the Council of Trent–The Roman Congregation of the

Index-Final Form of the Censorship of Books under

Clement VIII.-Analysis of its Regulations-Proscription

of Herctical Books-Correction of Texts—Purgation and

Castration-Inquisitorial and Episcopal Licenses-Work-

ing of the System of this Censorship in Italy-Its long

Delays-Hostility to Sound Learning-Ignorance of the

Censors-laterference with Scholars in their Work-Ter.

rorism of Booksellers—Vatican Scheme for the Restora.

tion of Christian Erudition-Frustrated by the Tyranny of

the Index-Dishonesty of the Vatican Scholars--Biblical

Studies rendered nugatory by the Tridentine Decree on the

Vulgate-Decline of Learning in Universities-Miserable

Servitude of Professors-Greck dies out-Murelus and

Manutius in Rome-The Index and ils Treatment of Poli.

tical Works-Machiavelli-Ralio Slaius-Encouragement

of Literature on Papal Absolutism-Sarpi's Attitude-Com-

parative Indifference of Rome to Books of Obscene or Im.

moral Tendency-Bandello and Boccaccio Papal At.

tempes to control latercourse of Italians with Herecia

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